Residents wade through a flood hit area following heavy monsoon rains in Charsadda district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa on August 29, 2022. Photo credit: Abdul Majeed / AFP

Key Developments

The onset of extreme low winter temperatures intensifies the risk of diseases and protection concerns for flood-affected communities across Pakistan.

Flood-related damages to agriculture and livelihoods exacerbates food security concerns, with 8.6 million people facing Crisis—IPC 3— or worse levels of acute food insecurity as of December.

Flooding and subsequent internal displacement expose 13.5 million people to heightened protection risks, as vulnerable populations experience physical danger and unsafe shelter conditions.


Since August 2008, conflict between the GoP and militants in FATA and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province has resulted in the internal displacement of millions of Pakistanis. Spontaneous and GoP-assisted returns to areas of origin have occurred each year; however, GoP security operations in FATA, primarily Khyber Agency, displaced nearly 412,000 people in 2012, according to the U.N. While returns continue, the overall security situation in Pakistan remains volatile and unpredictable, with ongoing security incidents, sectarian violence, and military operations contributing to displacement and related humanitarian needs.

Pakistan has experienced significant monsoon flooding for three consecutive years, most acutely affecting areas of Balochistan, Punjab, and Sindh provinces. The historic 2010 floods were particularly destructive, affecting more than 18 million people and resulting in nearly 2,000 deaths.

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