Photovoltaic System Standards

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Technicians install a solar photovoltaic array
Technicians install a solar photovoltaic array
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Many organizations have established standards that address photovoltaic (PV) system component safety, design, installation, and monitoring.

Standards are norms or requirements that establish a basis for the common understanding and judgment of materials, products, and processes. Standards are an invaluable tool in industry and business, because they streamline business practices and provide a level playing field for businesses to develop products and services. They are also critical to ensuring that products and services are safe for consumers and the environment.

There are numerous national and international bodies that set standards for photovoltaics. There are standards for nearly every stage of the PV life cycle, including materials and processes used in the production of PV panels, testing methodologies, performance standards, and design and installation guidelines. The standards shown below are not a complete list but are those most relevant to the procurement and installation of solar PV systems. Each standard has been loosely categorized based on its subject matter.

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

Balance of System

  • IEC 62093:2005: Balance-of-System Components for Photovoltaic Systems - Design Qualification Natural Environments
  • IEC 62109-1:2010: Safety of Power Converters for Use in Photovoltaic Power Systems - Part 1: General requirements
  • IEC 62109-2:2011: Safety of Power Converters for Use in Photovoltaic Power Systems - Part 2: Particular requirements for inverters
  • IEC 60269-6 ed1.0: Low-Voltage Fuses - Part 6: Supplementary requirements for fuse-links for the protection of solar photovoltaic energy systems

Characteristics

  • IEC 61727 ed2.0: Photovoltaic (PV) systems - Characteristics of the Utility Interface

Commissioning

  • IEC 62446-1:2016: Photovoltaic (PV) Systems - Requirements for Testing, Documentation, and Maintenance - Part 1: Grid connected systems - Documentation, commissioning tests and inspection.

Design

  • IEC 62124 ed1.0: Photovoltaic (PV) Stand-Alone Systems - Design Verification
  • IEC 62253 ed1.0: Photovoltaic Pumping Systems - Design Qualification and Performance Measurements

Installation

  • IEC 60364-1 ed5.0: Low-Voltage Electrical Installations - Part 1: Fundamental principles, assessment of general characteristics, definitions
  • IEC 60364-7-712:2017: Low-Voltage Electrical Installations - Part 7-712: Requirements for special installations or locations - Solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems

Monitoring

Performance

  • IEC 62509 ed1.0: Battery Charge Controllers for Photovoltaic Systems - Performance and Functioning

Rural Electrification

  • IEC TS 62257-1:2015: Recommendations for Renewable Energy and Hybrid Systems for Rural Electrification - Part 1: General introduction to IEC 62257 series and rural electrification

Safety

  • IEC 61730-1:2016: Photovoltaic (PV) Module Safety Qualification - Part 1: Requirements for construction
  • IEC 61730-2:2016: Photovoltaic (PV) Module Safety Qualification - Part 2: Requirements for testing

Terms

  • IEC TS 61836:2016: Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems - Terms, Definitions and Symbols

Testing

  • IEC 61215-1:2016: Design Qualifications & Type Approval Part 1: Testing requirements (All chemistries)
  • IEC 61215-2:2016: Design Qualifications & Type Approval Part 2: Testing procedures (All chemistries)
  • IEC 62116:2014: Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Inverters - Test Procedure of Islanding Prevention Measures

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

Interconnection

  • IEEE 1547.2-2008: IEEE Application Guide for IEEE Std 1547(TM), IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems
  • IEEE 1547.3-2007: IEEE Guide for Monitoring, Information Exchange, and Control of Distributed Resources Interconnected with Electric Power Systems
  • IEEE 1547-2018: IEEE Standard for Interconnection and Interoperability of Distributed Energy Resources with Associated Electric Power Systems Interfaces

Performance

  • IEEE 1526-2003: IEEE Recommended Practice for Testing the Performance of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

Sizing

  • IEEE 1562-2007: IEEE Guide for Array and Battery Sizing in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

Underwriters Laboratories (UL)

Balance of System

  • UL-2703, 1st Edition: Standard for Mounting Systems, Mounting Devices, Clamping/Retention Devices, and Ground Lugs for Use with Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels
  • UL 1741: Standard for Inverters, Converters, Controllers and Interconnection System Equipment for Use With Distributed Energy Resources
  • UL-1699B: Standard for Photovoltaic (PV) DC Arc-Fault Circuit Protection
  • UL-4703: Standard for Photovoltaic Wire
  • UL-854: Standard for Service - Entrance Cables
  • UL-4248-19: Fuseholders - Part 19: Photovoltaic
  • UL-6703: Standards for Connectors for Use in Photovoltaic Systems
  • UL-3730: Standard for Photovoltaic Junction Boxes
  • UL-489B, 1st Edition: Molded-Case Circuit Breakers, Molded-Case Switches, and Circuit-Breaker Enclosures for Use with Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

Concentrated

Flat-Plate PV

Mounting

Testing

  • UL-SU 5703: Determination of the Maximum Operating Temperature Rating of Photovoltaic (PV) Backsheet Materials

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

Terms

Testing

Last updated: June 30, 2020

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