USAID has designed this agriculture and food security sector guidance document to provide a practical tool for USAID missions and operating units to more effectively engage and partner with indigenous peoples in these activities. Consideration of indigenous peoples’ own development priorities and their participation in development design and implementation processes can help to mitigate adverse impacts on their communities, avoid conflict that could delay or derail projects and lead to better development outcomes. Well-structured communication and consultation processes that engage indigenous peoples in agriculture and food security program design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation are vital to advance program objectives while accounting for indigenous peoples’ needs, capacities and interests.