Communicable diseases account for 60 to 80 percent of all curative outpatient visits and more than half of all deaths in Afghanistan. Consequently, control of communicable disease is one of the highest priorities for the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH). In mid-2006, WHO, with USAID support, developed an expanded version of a Disease Early Warning System (DEWS) for Afghanistan. The project aims to reduce morbidity and mortality through early detection and response to disease outbreaks. Coordinating across a number of MoPH technical programs, DEWS collects information on 15-targeted communicable diseases, such as avian flu, measles, pertussis, acute respiratory infections, typhoid, and malaria on a weekly basis from 175 sentinel sites across all 34 provinces. In addition, to further expand diagnostic capabilities in support of DEWS, WHO works with the Cross Border Malaria Program to strengthen malaria laboratory diagnosis capabilities in Badakhshan, Takhar, Baghlan, and Kunduz, four high-risk provinces bordering Tajikistan.