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Pandemic Influenza and Other Emerging Threats

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Speeches Shim

USAID supports good market practices to curb spread of disease
USAID supports good market practices to curb spread of disease.
Richard Nyberg/Vietnam

Vietnam is prone to serious zoonotic and emerging infectious diseases with pandemic potential. In recent years the country has been affected by SARS, avian influenza A(H5N1), influenza A(H5N6) and the pandemic strain of influenza A(HINI). Risky practices related to bio-security of wildlife and livestock farming, trade and consumption of animal products, and the opportunities for spillover of emerging viruses from animals to humans are a serious concern and will require a long-term prevention and response effort. USAID has supported strengthening the country’s systems to effectively address these and other emerging and transnational health threats in both humans and animals.


While the number of reported influenza A(H5N1) outbreaks has decreased substantially in recent years, outbreaks of the virus in poultry and sporadic human cases continue to occur. A(H5NI) influenza still circulates and can cause fatalities. Influenza A(H7N9) virus in humans and animals has circulated annually in China since 2013, and provides another example of a potentially serious threat to public health and economic development. Since 2005, USAID-funded partners have worked nationally and in high-risk provinces to strengthen national and regional preparedness, planning, and multi-sectoral coordination to detect and prevent transmission of influenza and other zoonotic diseases. Working closely with the Government of Vietnam, USAID promotes early detection and warning of avian and human influenza outbreaks through improvements in national and community-based surveillance, and the development of a quick-response capacity. USAID’s partners focus on the animal-human-ecosystem interface under a One Health platform, and have expanded the scope of work to encompass other emerging zoonotic diseases.


USAID launched the Emerging Pandemic Threats 2 (EPT-2) program in 2014, which builds on the successes of earlier programs in disease surveillance, training and outbreak response. This program expands the operational platforms, institutional partnerships and knowledge base developed over the past decade by USAID’s EPT-1 and Avian Influenza portfolios to pre-empt or combat newly emerging diseases of animal origin at their source, and to reduce the threat to human health. The EPT-2 program strengthens capacities in Vietnam and more than 20 focus countries in Africa and Asia to prevent, detect and respond to infectious disease threats. These are also key objectives of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) and the International Health Regulations. Under GHSA, Vietnam is taking a leading global role in addressing zoonotic diseases, and with the support of USAID and other partners seeks to accelerate national and regional progress in achieving a world safe and secure from infectious disease threats.
EPT-2 is managed by USAID and implemented at the country level through a consortia of EPT-2 partners, with technical collaboration from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

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Last updated: November 05, 2021

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