1 World Bank Group, World Development Report 2016: Digital Dividends (Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group,2016), http://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/wdr2016.
2 Klaus Schwab, “The Fourth Industrial Revolution,” World Economic Forum (2017), https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/the-fourth-industrial-revolution….
3 Jonas Hjort and Jonas Poulsen, “The Arrival of Fast Internet and Employment in Africa,” American Economic Review 109, no. 3 (March 2019): 1032-79, https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.20161385.
4 Jonathan Woetzel, et al., “Smart Cities: Digital Solutions for a More Livable Future,” McKinsey Global Institute (2018), https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/capital-projects-and-infrastructure/our-insights/smart-cities-digital-solutions-for-a-more-livable-future; Sarah Rotz, et al., “Automated pastures and the digital divide: How agricultural technologies are shaping labour and rural communities,” Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 68, (May 2019), 112-122, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0743016718307769?via….
5 Erica Naone, “Why Crisis Maps Can Be Risky When There’s Political Unrest,” MIT Technology Review, (2011) https://www.technologyreview.com/s/424944/why-crisis-maps-can-be-risky-when-theres-political-unrest/; Robert Chesney and Danielle Citron, “Deep fakes and the New Disinformation War,” Foreign Affairs (Jan/Feb 2019), https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/world/2018-12-11/deepfakes-and-new-disinformation-war; Amy Paul, Craig Jolley, and Aubra Anthony, “Reflecting the Past, Shaping the Future: Making AI Work for International Development,” USAID (September 2018), https://www.usaid.gov/digital-development/machine-learning/AI-ML-in-dev….
6 OECD, “Bridging the Gender Digital Divide: Include, Upskill, Innovate,” (Paris: OECD, 2018), https://www.oecd.org/internet/bridging-the-digital-gender-divide.pdf.
7 DAI, “Cambodia—Development Innovations,” accessed November 2019, https://www.dai.com/our-work/projects/cambodia-development-innovations.
8 U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development, Joint Strategic Plan FY2018 - 2022, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government, 2018), https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1870/JSP_FY_2018_-_….
9 White House, National Cyber Strategy of the United States of America, (2018), 24-26, https://trumpwhitehouse.archives.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/National-Cyber-Strategy.pdf; USAID, “USAID Policy Framework: Ending the Need for Foreign Assistance,” (2019), https://www.usaid.gov/policyframework.
10 Mara Lemos Stein, “Ukraine Looks to Unmask Corruption with ProZorro E-Procurement,” Wall Street Journal, May 19, 2016, https://blogs.wsj.com/riskandcompliance/2016/05/19/ukraine-looks-to-unm….
11 Rowland Manthorpe, “From the Fires of Revolution, Ukraine is Reinventing Government,” Wired, August 20, 2018, https://www.wired.co.uk/article/ukraine-revolution-government-procureme….
12 GSMA Connected Women Global Development Alliance, Bridging the Gender Gap: Mobile Access and Usage in Low- and Middle-Income Countries, (London: GSMA, 2015), https://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/resources/bridging-gender-gap….
13 Guillermo Babatz, “Sustained Effort, Saving Billions: Lessons from the Mexican Government’s Shift to Electronic Payments,” Better than Cash Alliance (November 2013), https://www.betterthancash.org/news/blogs-stories/digitization-of-payme….
14 Tavneet Suri and William Jack, “The Long-Run Poverty and Gender Impacts of Mobile Money,” Science, Vol.354, Issue 6317 Dec 9, 2016, 1288-1292, http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6317/1288.
15 James Manyika, Susan Lund, Marc Singer, Olivia White, and Chris Berry, “How Digital Finance Could Boost Growth in Emerging Economies,” McKinsey Global Institute (2016), https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/employment-and-growth/how-di….
16 Susan Lund, James Manyika, Jonathan Woetzel, Jacques Bughin, Mekala Krishnan, Jeongmin Seong, and Mac Muir,“ Globalization in Transition: The Future of Trade and Value Chains,” McKinsey Global Institute ( January 2019), https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/innovation-and-growth/global….
17 Stefaan G. Verhulst and Andrew Young, “Open Data in Developing Economies,” The GovLab (July 2017), 45, http://odimpact.org/files/odimpact-developing-economies.pdf.
18 White House, National Security Strategy of the United States of America, (December 2017), https://trumpwhitehouse.archives.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/NSS-Fin….
19 White House, National Cyber Strategy, (September2018), 24-26, https://trumpwhitehouse.archives.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Nationa….
20 GSMA, “The Mobile Economy 2019,” (2019), https://www.gsmaintelligence.com/research/?file=b9a6e6202ee1d5f787cfebb….
21 USAID, “Mobile Phones and Ebola: Preventing Disease Outbreaks with Information,” YouTube (2017), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ysuv7D348kk.
22 Jonathan Kourgialis, “Learning from Ebola: How Mobile Money Can Prevent Health Crises,” Closing the Digital Divide (mSTAR blog) (July 2, 2018), https://mstarproject.wordpress.com/2018/07/02/how-mobile-money-can-prev….
23 Joe Abass Bangura, “Saving Money, Saving Lives: A Case Study on the Benefits of Digitizing Payments to Ebola Response Workers in Sierra Leone,” Better Than Cash Alliance (2016), https://www.betterthancash.org/tools-research/case-studies/saving-money….
24 Brenda Muwaga and Marc Mitchell, “Through eNutrition, a smart phone-based application, health workers provided treatment to children with severe acute malnutrition based on the child’s past weight, pasttreatment, and guideline targets,” Bulletin of the mHealth Compendium Volume 1 2012, (2012).
25 Saving Mothers Giving Life, “2018 Final Report: Results of a Five-Year Partnership to Reduce Maternal and Newborn Mortality,” (2018), https://www.healthynewbornnetwork.org/resource/saving-mothers-giving-li….
26 The Government of the Philippines has adopted and scaled up the technology with its own resources.
27 William Jack and Tavneet Suri, “Risk Sharing and Transactions Costs: Evidence from Kenya’s Mobile Money Revolution,” American Economic Review, 104 (1) (2014): 183-223.
28 Tavneet Suri and William Jack, “The Long-Run Poverty and Gender Impacts of Mobile Money,” Science, Vol.354, Issue 6317 Dec 9, 2016, 1288-1292, http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6317/1288.
29 Data Impacts, “Improving Farmers’ Income Through Market Price Information,” Agriculture and Environment, Case #9 (n/d), https://dataimpacts.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/market-data-raise-fa….
30 Nathan Associates, “USAID Regional Trade and Market Alliances Project,” Our Work, accessed November 2019, https://www.nathaninc.com/usaid-regional-trade-and-market-alliances-pro….
31 Better Than Cash Alliance, “The State of Digital Payments in the Philippines,” (December 2019), https://www.betterthancash.org/tools-research/case-studies/country-diag….
32 Karthik Muralidharan, Paul Niehaus, and Sandip Sukhtankar, “Improving Governance Through Biometric Authentication and Secure Payments in India,” J-PAL (n/d),https://www.povertyactionlab.org/evaluation/improving-governance-throug….
34 LandLinks, “Mobile Applications to Secure Tenure(MAST) Learning Platform,” accessed November 2019, https://www.land-links.org/tool-resource/mobile-applications-to-secure-….
35 USAID, “Pay-As-You Go Solar as a Driver of Financial Inclusion,” (2017), https://www.usaid.gov/digital-development/paygo.
36 Jake Bright, “Solar startup M-KOPA leapfrogs Africa’s electricity grid,” TechCrunch.com (n/d), https://techcrunch.com/2016/04/28/solar-startup-m-kopa-leapfrogs-africa….
37 All Children Reading, “Project Evaluations,” All Children Reading (n/d), https://allchildrenreading.org/research/project-evaluations/.
38 All Children Reading, “Sign on for Literacy Prize,” All Children Reading (n/d), https://allchildrenreading.org/competition/sign-on-for-literacy-prize/.
39 U.S. Global Development Lab, “Turning Data into Action,” USAID (n/d), https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/15396/Data2Action.p….
40 Amy Paul, Craig Jolley, and Aubra Anthony, “Reflecting the Past, Shaping the Future: Making AI Work for International Development,” USAID (September 2018),https://www.usaid.gov/digital-development/machine-learning/AI-ML-in-dev….
41 Mark Wronkiewicz, “Mapping the Electric Grid,” Development Seed Blog, February 14, 2018, https://medium.com/devseed/mapping-the-electric-grid-fe29f041d54e.
42 Jun Wang, Jingwei Song, Mingquan Chen, and Zhi Yang, “Road network extraction: A neural-dynamic framework based on deep learning and a finite state machine,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 36 (12) (June 2015): 3144-3169, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01431161.2015.1054049.
43 EQUALS Research Group, “Taking Stock: Data and Evidence on Gender Equality in Digital Access, Skills and Leadership,” EQUALS Global Partnership, (2019), https://www.itu.int/en/action/gender-equality/Documents/EQUALS%20Resear….
44 Sarah Myers West, Meredith Whittaker, and Kate Crawford, “Discriminating Systems: Gender, Race, and Power in AI,” AI NOW Institute (2019), https://ainowinstitute.org/ discriminatingsystems.html.
45 Amy Paul, Craig Jolley, and Aubra Anthony, “Reflecting the Past, Shaping the Future: Making AI Work for International Development,” USAID (September 2018), https://www.usaid.gov/digital-development/machine-learning/AI-ML-in-dev….
46 OECD, “OECD Principles on AI,” accessed November 2019, https://www.oecd.org/going-digital/ai/principles/.
47 EQUALS Research Group, “Taking Stock: Data and Evidence on Gender Equality in Digital Access, Skills and Leadership,” EQUALS Global Partnership, (2019), https://www.itu.int/en/action/gender-equality/Documents/EQUALS%20Resear…
48 Vyjayanti Desai, Anna Diofasi, and Jing Lu, “The global identification challenge: Who are the 1 billion people without proof of identity?” World Bank Voices Blog, (April 2018), https://blogs.worldbank.org/voices/global-identification-challenge-who-….
49 White House, National Cyber Strategy, (September 2018), https://trumpwhitehouse.archives.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Nationa….
50 Adrian Shahbaz and Allie Funk, “Freedom on the Net 2019: The Crisis of Social Media,” Freedom House (2019),https://www.freedomonthenet.org/report/freedom-on-the-net/2019/the-cris….
51 See, for example, Steven Feldstein, “The Road to Digital Unfreedom: How Artificial Intelligence Is Reshaping Repression,” Journal of Democracy, vol. 30, no. 1 (2019), 40–52.
52 Amy Hawkins, “Beijing’s Big Brother Tech Needs African Faces,” Foreign Policy, July 24, 2018, https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/07/24/beijings-bigbrother-tech-needs-african-faces/; Angus Berwick,“How ZTE helps Venezuela create China-style social control,” Reuters, November 14, 2018, https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/venezuela-zte/; Dusan Stojanovic, “Chinese snooping tech spreads to nations vulnerable to abuse,” Associated Press, October 17, 2019, https://apnews.com/9fd1c38594444d44acfe25ef5f7d6ba0.
53 White House, “National Strategy for Counterterrorism of the United States of America,” (2018), https://www.dni.gov/index.php/features/national-strategy-for-counterter….
54 USAID, “Policy on Countering Violent Extremism through Development Assistance.”
55 U.S. Department of State and USAID, Joint Strategy on Countering Violent Extremism, (May 2016), https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1866/FINAL%20--%20S….
56 Freedom on the Net, “The Crisis of Social Media,” (2019), https://www.freedomonthenet.org/report/freedom-on-the-net/2019/the-cris….
57 Peter Warren Singer, “Insurgency in 2030: A Primer on the Future of Technology and COIN,” (Washington, D.C.: New America, 2019).
58 White House, National Cyber Strategy, (September 2018), https://trumpwhitehouse.archives.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Nationa….
59 U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development, Joint Strategic Plan FY 2018-2022, (February 2018), https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1870/JSP_FY_2018_-_….
60 Harry Surden, “Structural Rights in Privacy,” SMU Law Review, Vol. 60 (December 2007), 1605-1629, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1004675.
61 Latanya Sweeney, “Simple demographics often identify people uniquely,” Carnegie Mellon University, Data-Privacy Working Paper 3 (2000), https://dataprivacylab.org/projects/identifiability/paper1.pdf.
62 Frank Luerweg, “The Internet Knows You Better Than Your Spouse Does,” Scientific American, March 14, 2019,https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-internet-knows-you-bette….
63 To publicly identify or publish private information about (someone) especially as a form of punishment or revenge (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dox).
64 Pavel Polityuk, Oleg Vukmanovic, and Stephen Jewkes,“Ukraine’s power outage was a cyber attack: Ukrenergo,” Reuters, January 18, 2017, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-ukraine-cyber-attack-energy-idUSKBN1….
65 Nicole Perlroth, Mark Scott, and Sheera Frenkel,“Cyberattack Hits Ukraine Then Spreads Internationally,” The New York Times, June 27, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/27/technology/ransomware-hackers.html.
66 Joseph Marks, “The Cybersecurity 202: A bank wants to recover the $81 million North Korea allegedly stole. It won’t be easy,” The Washington Post, February 5, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/powerpost/paloma/the-cybersecurity-….
67 U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development, Joint Strategic Plan FY 2018-2022, (February 2018), 31, https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1870/JSP_FY_2018_-_….
68 Cameron Kerry, “Why Protecting Privacy is a Losing Game Today—and How to Change the Game,” Brookings Institution (July 2018), https://www.brookings.edu/research/why-protecting-privacy-is-a-losing-game-today-and-how-to-change-the-game/; Iga Kozlowska, “Facebook and Data Privacy in the Age of Cambridge Analytica,” Jackson School of International Studies (April 2018),https://jsis.washington.edu/news/facebook-data-privacy-age-cambridge-an….
69 World Bank Group, World Development Report 2016: Digital Dividends, (Washington, DC: World Bank Group, 2016) 55-56, http://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/wdr2016.
70 Tavneet Suri and William Jack, “The Long-Run Poverty and Gender Impacts of Mobile Money,” Science, Vol. 354, Issue 6317 Dec 9, 2016, 1288-1292, http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6317/1288.
71 OECD, “Rethinking Antitrust Tools for Multi-Sided Platforms 2018,” (2018), https://www.oecd.org/daf/competition/Rethinking-antitrust-tools-for-multi-sided-platforms-2018.pdf; The Economist, “Market concentration can benefit consumers, but needs scrutiny,” (2017), https://www.economist.com/finance-and-economics/2017/08/31/market-concentration-can-benefit-consumers-but-needs-scrutiny; Michael Pisa and John Polcari, “Governing Big Tech’s Pursuit of the “Next Billion Users,” Center for Global Development (2019), https://www.cgdev.org/publication/governing-big-techs-pursuit-next-bill….
72 Samuel Woolley and Philip Howard, eds.,“Computational Propaganda: Political Parties, Politicians,and Political Manipulation on Social Media,” Oxford Internet Institute, (2018), https://comprop.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/computational-propaganda-the-book/.
73 Himanshu Zade, et al., “From Situational Awareness to Actionability: Towards Improving the Utility of Social Media Data for Crisis Response,” Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 2, CSCW, Article 195, 5(November 2018), https://doi.org/10.1145/3274464.
74 Robin Wilson, et al,, “Rapid and Near Real-Time Assessments of Population Displacement Using Mobile Phone Data Following Disasters: The 2015 Nepal Earthquake,” PLOSCurrents Disasters, (Feb 24, 2016), http://doi.org/10.1371/currents.dis.d073fbece328e4c39087bc086d694b5c.
75 Sarah Bailey, “Electronic transfers in humanitarian assistance and uptake of financial services: A synthesis of ELAN case studies,” Humanitarian Policy Group, (2017), https://odi.org/en/publications/electronic-transfers-in-humanitarian-as….
76 Teresa Welsh, “Biometrics disagreement leads to food aid suspension in Yemen,” DevEx, (June 24, 2019), https://www.devex.com/news/biometrics-disagreement-leads-to-food-aid-su….
77 White House, “National Cyber Strategy,” (September2018), 12, https://trumpwhitehouse.archives.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Nationa….
78 Beatrice Berton, “The Dark Side of the Web: ISIL’s One-Stop Shop?” European Union Institute for Security Studies (2015), https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/192064/Alert_30_The_Dark_Web.pdf; Daniel Byman, “An Intelligence Reserve Corps to Counter Terrorist Use of the Internet,” Hoover Institution (2018), https://www.hoover.org/research/intelligence-reserve-corps-counter-terr….
79 WTO, “World Trade Statistical Review 2018,” (2018), https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/wts2018_e/wts18_toc_e.htm.
80 Technologists refer to this as Conway’s Law, which states that organizations tend to produce technology systems whose structure mirrors their own communications structure. Melvin Conway, “How Do Committees Invent?” (April 1968), http://www.melconway.com/Home/pdf/committees.pdf.
81 Larissa Fast and Adele Waugaman, “Fighting Ebola with Information: Learning From Data and Information Flows in the West Africa Ebola Response,” (Washington, D.C.:USAID, 2016), https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/15396/FightingEbola….
82 Thomas Lammer, José Antonio García, and Sacha Polverini, “Establishing Payments Interoperability: Coordination Is Key,” World Bank Blogs, September 26,2016, http://blogs.worldbank.org/psd/establishing-payments-interoperability-coordination-key; Massimo Cirasino, Thomas Lammer, and Harish Natarajan, “Solving Payments Interoperability for Universal Financial Access,” World Bank Blogs, February 25, 2016, http://blogs.worldbank.org/psd/solving-payments-interoperability-universal-financial-access; Charles Niehaus and William Cook, “Balancing the Economics of Interoperability in Digital Finance,” CGAP Blog, January 23, 2018, https://www.cgap.org/blog/balancing-economics-interoperability-digital-….
83 Digital Principles, “Homepage,” Principles for Digital Development, accessed November 2019, https://digitalprinciples.org/.
84 Adele Waugaman, “From Principle to Practice: Implementing the Principles for Digital Development, ”Principles for Digital Development (Washington, D.C.: The Principles for Digital Development Working Group, January 2016), https://digitalprinciples.org/wp-content/uploads/From_Principle_to_Prac….
85 White House, National Cyber Strategy, (September 2018), 2, https://trumpwhitehouse.archives.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Nationa….
86 U.S. National Archives, “The Constitution of the United States: Bill of Rights,” (September 25, 1789), https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/bill-of-rights-transcript.
87 United Nations, “Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” (December 10, 1948), https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/.
88 Vietnam: Euan McKirdy, “‘Stalinist’ Vietnamese cybersecurity law takes effect, worrying rights groups and online campaigners,” CNN.com, January 2, 2019,https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/02/asia/vietnam-cybersecurity-bill-intl/index.html; Thailand: TechCrunch.com, “Thailand passes controversial cybersecurity law that could enable government surveillance,” (n/d),https://techcrunch.com/2019/02/28/thailand-passes-controversial-cybersecurity-law/; China: Jack Wagner, “China’s Cybersecurity Law: What You Need to Know,” The Diplomat, June 1, 2017, https://thediplomat.com/2017/06/chinas-cybersecurity-law-what-you-need-….
89 USAID, “Local Systems: A Framework for Supporting Sustained Development,” (April 2014), https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1870/LocalSystemsFr….
90 USAID, “Policy Framework,” (April 2019), https://www.usaid.gov/policyframework.
91 USAID, “Risk-Appetite Statement,” (June 2018),https://www.usaid.gov/policy/risk-appetite-statement. Developed and maintained by the Risk Management Council(RMC); USAID, “Governance Charter for Enterprise Risk Management and Internal Control at USAID: A Mandatory Reference for Automated Directives System Chapter 596,” (August 2017), https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1868/596mab.pdf.
92 USAID, “Risk-Appetite Statement,” (June 2018), 8-9, https://www.usaid.gov/policy/risk-appetite-statement.
93 Ibid, 21.
94 USAID, Local Systems: A Framework for Supporting Sustained Development (Washington, D.C., 2014), https://www.usaid.gov/policy/local-systems-framework.
95 USAID, “Procurement Executive’s Bulletin No. 2014-06,” (August 6, 2014), https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/peb2014_06.pdf.
96 USAID, “Automated Directives System (ADS) Chapter 579mab: Activity Location Data,” (July 31, 2018), https://www.usaid.gov/ads/policy/500/579mab.
97 Vital Wave & Caribou Digital, “Digital Economies In Emerging Markets,” Digital Economies in Emerging Markets (December 2014), http://vitalwave.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Digital-Economies-In-Em….
98 Nicholas Diakopolous, et al. “Principles for Accountable Algorithms and a Social Impact Statementfor Algorithms,” (n/d), https://www.fatml.org/resources/principles-for-accountable-algorithms; Diego Molano Vega, “Colombia’s Digital Agenda: Successes and the Challenges Ahead,” in The Global Information Technology Report 2013, World Economic Forum (Geneva: WorldEconomic Forum, 2013), http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GITR/2013/GITR_Chapter2.1_2013.pdf (Although this plan has changed since the Colombian national election in 2018, funding is still going toward this initiative); Data protection-India’s evolving data protection debate/laws, Sindhuja Balaji, “India Finally Has A Data Privacy Framework — What Does It Mean For Its Billion-Dollar Tech Industry?” Forbes.com, August 3, 2018, https://www.forbes.com/sites/sindhujabalaji/2018/08/03/india-finally-has-a-data-privacy-framework-what-does-it-mean-for-its-billion-dollar-tech-industry/ and https://www.pwc.in/assets/pdfs/publications/2018/privacy-in-the-data-economy.pdf; Privacy-GDPR, Matt Burgess, “What is GDPR? The Summary Guide to GDPR Compliance in the UK,” Wired.com, January 21, 2019, https://www.wired.co.uk/article/what-is-gdpr-uk-eu-legislation-complian… and https://ethicsinaction.ieee.org/.
99 USAID, Local Systems: A Framework for Supporting Sustained Development (Washington, D.C., 2014), https://www.usaid.gov/policy/local-systems-framework.
100 USAID, “Discussion Note: Adaptive Management,”(January 2018), https://usaidlearninglab.org/library/discussion-note-adaptive-management.
101 Adele Waugaman, “From Principle to Practice: Implementing the Principles for Digital Development,”Principles for Digital Development (Washington, D.C.: The Principles for Digital Development Working Group, January 2016), https://digitalprinciples.org/wp-content/uploads/From_Principle_to_Prac….
102 USAID, “Glossary of Automated Directive Systems Terms,” accessed November 2019, https://www.usaid.gov/who-we-are/agency-policy/glossary-ads-terms.
103 OMB M-16-21, “Federal Source Code Policy: Achieving Efficiency, Transparency, and Innovation through Reusable and Open Source Software,” https://sourcecode.cio.gov/; and DIAL Research, “SDG Digital Investment Framework and Call to Action,” Digital Impact Alliance (September 2018), https://digitalimpactalliance.org/resource/dial-itu-sdg-digital-investm….
104 USAID, “USAID Education Policy,” (2018), https://www.usaid.gov/education/policy.
105 Integra Government Services International, “Final Report for the Africa Universal Service and Access Fund Support Project,” (October 18, 2013), 1, https://www.integrallc.com/global-broadband-and-innovations-program-fin….
106 USAID, “Connecting People. Transforming Nations,”(n/d) https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/15396/Indonesia-Bro….
107 International Telecommunication Union, “SDG Digital Investment Framework: A Whole-of-Government Approach to Investing in Digital Technologies to Achieve the SDGs,” ITU and DIAL (2019), https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-d/opb/str/D-STR-DIGITAL.02-2019-PDF-E.p….
108 Higher Engineering Education Alliance Program (HEEAP), https://heeap.org/. Accessed January 15, 2020.
109 Science, Technology, Research and Innovation for Development (STRIDE) Program, https://stride.org.ph/. Accessed January 15, 2020.
110 E.g., by Executive Order, Federal Departments and Agencies and their contractors are subject to the requirements of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) under Section 2002 of Title 32 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), CONTROLLED UNCLASSIFIED INFORMATION (CUI), which provides the Federal standard for the processing and dissemination of Federal information that is not classified. A pending amendment to the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement NARA’s CUI regulation will establish policy and new clauses for all Federal contractors to require security and privacy controls for Federal information systems and organizations as well as to protect CUI in non-Federal systems and organizations, as specified by NARA.
111 The Digital Ecosystem Fund still requires capitalization by the Agency, which USAID expects to do over two or three Fiscal Years.
112 Chapter 188.8.131.52 of the Automated Directives System (ADS) outlines the Vision Paper: https://www.usaid.gov/ads/policy/200/200.
113 Details on the New Partnership Initiative appear at https://www.usaid.gov/npi.
114 The USAID Acquisition and Assistance Strategy is available at https://www.usaid.gov/work-usaid/how-to-work-with-usaid/acquisition-and….
115 International Telecommunication Union, “Measuring Digital Development: Facts and Figures 2019,” accessed November 2019, https://itu.foleon.com/itu/measuringdigital-development/gender-gap/.
116 U.S. Government, Advancing Protection and Care for Children in Adversity: A U.S. Government Strategy for Children in Adversity (2019-2023), (n/d), https://www.childreninadversity.gov/docs/default-source/default-documen…
117 See Chapter 579 of the Automated Directives System (ADS) for guidance around programmatic data use at USAID. See ADS Chapter 201 for guidance on data-informed planning throughout USAID’s Program Cycle. See ADS Chapter 200mbe on guidance around informed consent. See ADS Chapter 508 for guidance around data privacy.
118 USAID, “Procurement Executive’s Bulletin No. 2014-06,” (August 6, 2014), https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/peb2014_06.pdf.
119 Adapted from Amy Paul, Craig Jolley, and Aubra Anthony, “Reflecting the Past, Shaping the Future: Making AI Work for International Development,” USAID (September2018), https://www.usaid.gov/digital-development/machine-learning/AI-ML-in-dev….
120 Adapted from Kathleen Ann Ruane, “Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment,” Congressional Research Service, (September 8, 2014),https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/95-815.pdf.
121 Adapted from Open Society Institute, “The Growing Threat of Soft Censorship,” (December 12, 2005), https://www.justiceinitiative.org/uploads/8a661bc6-9ff8-4570-b79f-d5272….
122 Adapted from https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/bill-of-rights-transcript and Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
123 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), U.S. Department of Commerce “Cybersecurity,” accessed November 2019, https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/cybersecurity.
124 U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Cybersecurity Strategy (2018), https://www.dhs.gov/publication/dhs-cybersecurity-strategy.
125 Adapted from ITI, “Forced Localization,” accessed November 2019, https://www.itic.org/policy/forced-localization/data-localization and http://e15initiative.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/E15-Policy-Brief-Cr….
126 Adapted from NIST Computer Security Resource Center, “Privacy,” accessed December 2019, https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/privacy.
127 Adapted from NIST Computer Security Resource Center, “Information Security,” accessed December 2019, https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/information_security.
128 Alina Polyakova and Chris Meserole, “Exporting digital authoritarianism: The Russian and Chinese models,” Foreign Policy at Brookings, (n/d), https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/FP_20190827_digita….
129 Adapted from the International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (UNEVOC) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), “Digital Divide,” accessed December 2019, https://unevoc.unesco.org/go.php?q=TVETipedia+Glossary+A-Z&term=Digital….
130 The World Bank, “Principles on Identification for Sustainable Development: Toward the Digital Age,” (February 2, 2018), http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/213581486378184357/Principles…
131 Adapted from UNESCO, “A Global Framework of Reference on Digital Literacy Skills for Indicator 4.4.2,” (June 2018), http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/ip51-global-framewo….
132 World Trade Organization, “Electronic Commerce,”accessed November 2019, https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/ecom_e/ecom_e.htm.
133 Adapted from Caroline Jack, “Lexicon of Lies: Terms for Problematic Information,” Data and Society Research Institute, (n/d), https://datasociety.net/pubs/oh/DataAndSociety_LexiconofLies.pdf.
134 Adapted from Claire Wardle, “Information Disorder: The Essential Glossary,” Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics, and Public Policy, Harvard University, (July 2018),https://firstdraftnews.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/infoDisorder_glos….
135 Adapted from Article 19, “‘Hate Speech’ Explained: A Toolkit,” (2015), https://www.article19.org/data/files/medialibrary/38231/’Hate-Speech’-Explained---A-Toolkit-%282015-Edition%29.pdf.
136 Adapted from USAID, “Suggested Approaches for Integrating Inclusive Development Across the Program Cycle and in Mission Operations (ADS 201 Additional Help),” (July 2018), https://usaidlearninglab.org/sites/default/files/resource/files/additio….
137 White House, National Cyber Strategy, (September 2018), 24, https://trumpwhitehouse.archives.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Nationa….
138 International Telecommunications Union, “Overview of the Internet of Things,” accessed November 2019, https://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Y.2060-201206-I/en.
139 Adapted from Amy Paul, Craig Jolley, and Aubra Anthony, “Reflecting the Past, Shaping the Future: Making AI Work for International Development,” USAID (September 2018), https://www.usaid.gov/digital-development/machine-learning/AI-ML-in-dev….
140 USAID, “Glossary of ADS Terms,” accessed November 2019, https://www.usaid.gov/who-we-are/agency-policy/glossary-ads-terms.
141 Adapted from United Nations “Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” (December 10, 1948), https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/.
142 USAID, “Countering Violent Extremism through Development Assistance,” (forthcoming).