The scale of the humanitarian and human rights disaster unfolding in Sudan and the region is unprecedented. Violence that exploded between Sudanese Armed Forces and Rapid Support Forces on April 15, 2023, has destroyed much of the essential infrastructure in the capital, Khartoum, pushing health and financial systems to near collapse, and has already forced more than 100,000 of the world’s most vulnerable people to flee to neighboring countries with scarce access to food, water, or protection. Even before this crisis, nearly 16 million people in Sudan—a third of the population—needed humanitarian assistance, due to conflict, displacement, economic crisis, and widespread food insecurity. Sudan was hosting 1.1 million refugees, one of Africa’s largest refugee populations. After Sudan’s military seized power on October 25, 2021, and arrested leaders of the civilian-led government, the U.S. Government ceased support to Sudan’s government, then expanded activities that support Sudanese in their democratic aspirations, including marginalized groups, women, and youth.