Between 2000 and 2013, eight of 15 West African nations experienced at least one year of violent conflict. The majority of countries in the region are vulnerable to future strife because of their legacies of conflict and overall state fragility. USAID|West Africa manages a complex regional portfolio aimed at strengthening systems of non-violent conflict management in West Africa, primarily by improving regional conflict early warning and investing significantly in countering violent extremism (CVE) at the community level across the region. However, USAID efforts are challenged by the difficulty of measuring impact in this complex programming environment and the general lack of sound data and local analytical capability.
The United States Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Leadership, Management and Governance project strengthened Afghanistan’s systems for delivering health and education services by increasing the knowledge and capacity of healthcare providers, program managers, and policy makers. The project provided technical assistance to the Ministry of Public Health and the Ministry of Education with a focus on increasing transparency about how budget resources are used and accountability for results.
Monsoon season floods and landslides hinder aid delivery and exacerbate living conditions for displaced people. Approximately 80,000 people evacuate from areas at risk of landslides since July. USAID/OFDA partners continue to assist earthquake-affected populations.
It is widely recognized that inadequate access to water and sanitation services has enormous health, economic and social consequences. Poor water quality continues to pose a major threat to human health. Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in children under five years old, and is responsible for killing around 760,000 children every year (WHO, 2013). A significant proportion of diarrheal disease can be prevented through safe drinking-water and adequate sanitation and hygiene. In communities that lack safe drinking water, women and girls spend several hours each day collecting water from distant sources, and this reduces opportunities to attend school.
The upland forests, coastal resources and wildlife that support the social, ecological and economic resilience of West Africa are at risk. Complex forces that drive resource degradation—illegal and unsustainable logging, wildlife poaching and trafficking, poverty, population growth and weak governance—threaten the sustainability of key transboundary resources and undermine the ability of the human and natural systems to respond and adapt to climate change shocks and stresses. Projected changes in the West African climate—temperature increases on the order of 2-3 degrees centigrade, unpredictable rainfall, and the greater frequency of droughts and floods—will affect livelihoods and challenge economic growth and resilience across the region.
With increasing rates of population growth and urbanization, infrastructure in African cities, such as water delivery systems and wastewater systems, can be overwhelmed. Poor governance, chronic underinvestment and a lack of skilled staff make it difficult for urban water utilities to provide safe drinking water to consumers. However, experience suggests that strong leadership and institutions, coupled with preventative risk-based management approaches and sustained capacity-building efforts, are critical to improving the quality of drinking water services in African cities
West African countries are experiencing change at many levels—climatic, agricultural, demographic, political and socioeconomic. As a result, a growing number of major challenges threaten the region including high climatic variability; rapidly growing populations and climate-driven land use; and human and land cover changes that result in considerable pressure on the fragile resource base.
Some of the lowest rates of improved sanitation in the world are in Benin (13 percent), Côte d’Ivoire (14 percent), and Ghana (28 percent). There are minimal services for safe disposal and treatment of human waste. Densely populated areas, such as slum communities, do not have enough space to construct household toilets. Land disputes and a lack of urban planning complicate this problem. Most urban families desire a toilet, particularly to protect the privacy of the women and children in the household, but there are few affordable sanitation options that suit their needs. Disconnected supply chains make products expensive and difficult to acquire, and service providers often fail to provide quality materials.
Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in adolescence is a major public health issue in Afghanistan, where the prevalence of anemia is among the highest in the world. The Afghan National Nutrition Survey (2013) findings indicate that anemia exists in all age groups and is particularly high among adolescent girls.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has been helping the Afghan government to increase children’s access to basic education since 2006. One of the ways in which USAID is helping bring education to children in remote areas is through Community-Based Education (CBE) activities implemented in partnership with UNICEF and the Afghan Ministry of Education. CBE is a proven means to reach children who are unable to attend formal schools due to insecurity, distance or other constraints.
Last updated: March 24, 2017