Some of the lowest rates of improved sanitation in the world are found in Benin (13 percent), Côte d’Ivoire (14 percent), and Ghana (28 percent). Each country lacks affordable options for safe disposal and treatment of human waste. Densely populated areas, such as slum communities, have limited space to construct household toilets, and land disputes coupled with a lack of urban planning complicate this problem. Most urban families desire a toilet, often to protect the privacy and safety of women and children in the household, but there are few affordable sanitation options that suit their needs. Disconnected supply chains make products expensive and difficult to acquire, and service providers often fail to provide quality materials. The rapidly growing urban populations of each country will continue to put further pressure on already strained sanitation infrastructure.


The Sanitation Service Delivery (SSD) program began with an analysis of the urban sanitation markets in Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana to identify constraints and potential areas for intervention. Guided by the findings of the analysis, SSD developed sets of interventions called sanitation delivery models to catalyze the creation of a more efficient and inclusive sanitation market system that is attractive to consumers and generates profits for local micro-enterprises. Each country is currently implementing latrine product sales and improved human waste services management. The models are uniquely designed to address the specific local sanitation challenges. Through these interventions, SSD is improving the enabling environment by operationalizing consumer loans for sanitation. SSD efforts are also helping entrepreneurs to develop toilet building businesses, as well as innovate new sanitation technologies and services. In addition, SSD creates sanitation management business models that influence policy and practices across the region. The project is also building government capacity to improve sanitation infrastructure and increase collaboration with the private sector.


  • Increase access to improved sanitation services and products that also improve hygiene
  • Increase sustainable and safe sewage removal, containment, and transport and disposal of human waste
  • Share learning on market-based approaches for the provision of sanitation services and products throughout West Africa


  • 48,213 people gained access to basic sanitation and a further 914,754 people gained access to improved sanitation
  • 55,270 people reached by awareness campaigns across the three countries
  • 42,540 people living in households have access to a handwashing device
  • 50,968 people benefitted from safe human waste management
  • 25 percent of those gaining access to basic sanitation and safe management of human waste are in the two lowest poverty quintiles


  • 53,130 toilet products sold to date (April 2021)
  • 21,049 septic tank emptying services provided through the Call Centers that improved the quality and reduced the cost of emptying of septic tanks (as of April 2021).
  • Successfully tested a Mobile Money solution to reduce the cost of operations and increase profitability of small businesses.
  • Establishing finance mechanisms and fund guarantees that support landlords and entrepreneurs to access loans for toilet construction with over $70,000 of micro-loans issued to households for the construction of 250 toilets.
  • 1,126 consumers benefitted from micro loan support to purchase latrine products offered by project-supported microenterprises. 


GOAL: Influence the region’s sanitation and hygiene sub-sector to create a more effective, sustainable, and inclusive sanitation and hygiene market for the urban poor by developing and testing scalable interventions that engage private sector sanitation service providers and contributes to the creation of a strong, enabling environment for the sanitation sector.

LIFE OF PROGRAM: Oct. 2014 – Sept. 2021
GEOGRAPHIC FOCUS: Benin and Côte d’Ivoire (2014-2021) and Ghana (2014-2019)

  • Population Services International (PSI), lead implementing partner
  • Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP)
  • Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH)
  • Sanitation Ministries in Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, and Ghana
  • Ministries of Health