Many organizations have established standards that address lithium-ion battery safety, performance, testing, and maintenance.

Standards are norms or requirements that establish a basis for the common understanding and judgment of materials, products, and processes. Standards are an invaluable tool in industry and business, because they streamline business practices and provide a level playing field for businesses to develop products and services. They are also critical to ensuring that products and services are safe for consumers and the environment.

A number of standards have been developed for the design, testing, and installation of lithium-ion batteries. The internationally recognized standards listed in this section have been created by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), Underwriters Laboratories (UL), the Japanese Standards Association (JSA), and others. These standards have been selected because they pertain to lithium-ion Batteries and Battery Management in stationary applications, including uninterruptible power supply (UPS), rural electrification, and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. These standards should be referenced when procuring and evaluating equipment and professional services.

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)


  • IEC 61960: Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes - Secondary lithium cells and batteries for portable applications - Part 3: Prismatic and cylindrical lithium secondary cells and batteries made from them


  • IEC 62133-2:2017: Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes - Safety requirements for portable sealed secondary lithium cells, and for batteries made from them, for use in portable applications - Part 2: Lithium systems
  • IEC 62281:2019: Safety of primary and secondary lithium cells and batteries during transport


  • IEC 61959:2004: Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes - Mechanical tests for sealed portable secondary cells and batteries

Underwriters Laboratories (UL)



  • UL-9540A, 4th Edition: ANSI/CAN/UL Standard for Test Method for Evaluating Thermal Runaway Fire Propagation in Battery Energy Storage Systems
  • UL-1973, 2nd Edition: ANSI/CAN/UL Standard for Batteries for Use in Stationary, Vehicle Auxiliary Power and Light Electric Rail (LER) Applications
  • UL-1974, 1st Edition: ANSI/CAN/UL Standard for Evaluation for Repurposing Batteries

Japanese Standards Association (JSA)

  • JIS C 8715-2: Secondary Lithium Cells and Batteries for Use in Industrial Applications - Part 2: Tests and requirements of safety
Lithium-Ion Battery Standards
Lithium-Ion Battery Standards
Dennis Schroeder / NREL