Lake Chad Complex Emergency Fact Sheet #4 FY2018

December 14, 2017

Acute food insecurity likely to persist across the Lake Chad Basin through at least mid-2018

The UN requests $157 million to support 293,000 Nigerian refugees and host community members in Lake Chad Basin during 2018

The UN allocates $13.4 million to the NHF to deliver multi-sector assistance for 950,000 people in northeastern Nigeria

Numbers At A Glance

8.5 million

Population Requiring Humanitarian Assistance in Nigeria’s Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe States

1.57 million

IDPs in Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe

129,015

IDPs in Niger’s Diffa Region

241,987

IDPs in Cameroon’s Far North Region

152,905

IDPs in Chad’s Lac Region

208,509

Nigerian Refugees in Cameroon, Chad, and Niger

Humanitarian Funding

For the Lake Chad Basin Response

USAID/OFDA $134,373,569
USAID/FFP $314,910,422
State/PRM3 $71,090,000
USAID Nigeria $6,182,734
Total $526,556,725

Violence and insecurity continue to result in civilian casualties and hinder humanitarian operations in northeastern Nigeria. A December 2 person-borne improvised explosive device (PBIED) attack killed at least 13 civilians in Borno State’s town of Bui, while a November 28 attack on a team of health workers forced the suspension of vaccination activities in Borno’s Gubio Local Government Area (LGA). Organizations operating in northeastern Nigeria report that intensified conflict in the region during November has increased population displacement, resulted in numerous civilian casualties, and limited humanitarian access.

Many vulnerable populations in northeastern Nigeria continue to face Crisis—IPC 3—or Emergency—IPC 4—levels of acute food insecurity, with an elevated risk of Famine—IPC 5—in inaccessible areas; the dire conditions are expected to persist through mid-2018, according to the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET).

In addition, the Government of Chad (GoC), in collaboration with humanitarian actors, recently released an updated Cadre Harmonisé (CH) report—a tool used across West Africa for the classification and quantification of food insecurity—that estimated approximately 187,000 people could experience Crisis—Phase 3—or worse levels of acute food insecurity in Lac Region between June and August 2018.

Approximately 2.3 million people in Niger, including 419,000 people in Diffa Region, may require humanitarian assistance during 2018, according to the 2018 Niger Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO).

The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) recently released the 2018 Nigeria Regional Refugee Response Plan (RRRP), which requests approximately $157 million to provide multi-sector assistance for 293,000 people, including 218,000 Nigerian refugees and 75,000 host community members, in Cameroon, Chad, and Niger. As of November, more than 208,500 Nigerian refugees had sought protection in neighboring countries throughout the Lake Chad Basin, according to UNHCR.

The RRRP aims to enhance protection support and services for refugees and other vulnerable populations, including civil registration and documentation; preventive and response services for unaccompanied minors and survivors of sexual and gender-based violence (GBV); durable solutions for refugees; and protection training for government and non-governmental organization (NGO) representatives. Relief organizations also plan to increase access to basic services and support for vulnerable populations, particularly refugees living outside of camp settings and in remote locations.

On December 2, a PBIED attack killed at least 13 civilians and injured more than 50 others in a market in Borno’s town of Biu, international media report. The attack reportedly occurred while aid workers were distributing food assistance to beneficiaries in the area. In addition, unidentified armed persons attacked a team of Government of Nigeria (GoN) health workers conducting a polio vaccination campaign in Borno’s Gubio LGA on November 28, according to the UN. While the team was unharmed, the incident prompted the suspension of vaccination activities.

Organizations operating in northeastern Nigeria report that intensified conflict in the region, particularly in Adamawa and Borno states, during November increased population displacement, resulted in numerous civilian casualties, and limited humanitarian access. Most of the population in the affected region continues to face Crisis or Emergency levels of acute food insecurity, with an elevated risk of Famine in inaccessible areas. FEWS NET anticipates that poor food security conditions are likely to continue through mid-2018 as persistent conflict continues to displace populations, disrupt livelihood activities, reduce agricultural production, and limit humanitarian access in the region.

Economic challenges persist in northeastern Nigeria, despite improvements in Nigeria’s national economy, according to FEWS NET. Staple food prices in most markets in Borno and Yobe states have declined in recent months, as main-season harvests have bolstered market supply of food; however, food prices in northeastern Nigeria remain higher than national averages due to the protracted crisis and high demand resulting from below-average local harvests. While the functionality of key markets in Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe has generally improved, food actors report minimal market activity in several conflict-affected LGAs in Borno and Adamawa, according to a market assessment by FEWS NET and USAID partner the UN World Food Program (WFP).

In Borno, the number of new suspected cholera cases recorded per week has significantly declined since the peak of the outbreak in September. From December 4–10, Borno State Ministry of Health officials reported eight new suspected cases, representing a decrease of nearly 100 percent compared to the approximately 1,200 cases recorded between September 4 and 10. Health actors reported 5,400 suspected and confirmed cholera cases, including 61 related deaths, between mid-August and December 10. Although the current case fatality rate of 1.1 percent continues to exceed the UN World Health Organization (WHO) emergency threshold of 1 percent, the rate represents a substantial decline since the outbreak began in mid-August; health officials have not recorded a cholera-related death since October 11.

In response to the cholera outbreak, health actors launched a second-round cholera vaccination campaign on December 9 targeting more than 850,000 people in communities and internally displaced person (IDP) sites across six high-risk LGAs of Dikwa, Jere, Konduga, Mafa, Maiduguri Metropolitan Council, and Monguno, according to WHO. Health officials conducted the first cholera vaccination round in September, which reached nearly 900,000 people.

The June–September rainy season contributed to flooding, disease outbreaks, poor ground transportation conditions, and restricted access to some areas of northeastern Nigeria, adversely affecting relief operations, according to a recent assessment by the Logistics Sector Working Group—the coordinating body for logistics activities in Nigeria, comprising UN agencies, NGOs, and other stakeholders. Survey findings suggest that strengthening monitoring of convoy movements, improving storage sites to sufficiently pre-position commodities, expanding real-time information sharing of road conditions, and collaborating with the GoN to enhance road infrastructure could bolster the humanitarian response during the 2018 rainy season.

In collaboration with the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the REACH Initiative conducted a multi-sector rapid needs assessment in eight Yobe LGA capitals from September 15–October 9 to improve understanding of needs among IDPs, returnees, and other vulnerable populations. While the assessment identified an overall higher vulnerability among IDPs, particularly in regards to limited access to land and livelihoods, the findings indicate that significant needs persist across all three population groups.

The REACH assessment also reinforced the importance of livelihood activities to meet basic needs. While surveyed IDPs reported agriculture as a main source of income, only 47 percent of IDPs cultivated crops in 2017; approximately 85 percent of the IDPs that did not cultivate crops identified insufficient access to land as a primary obstacle, contributing to decreased access to income-generating opportunities. In addition, respondents reported lack of financial resources as the most significant barrier to accessing health care services and medicine.

USAID/FFP recently contributed more than $10 million to an NGO partner to respond to urgent food needs in northeastern Nigeria. With this support, the partner plans to provide monthly food vouchers for approximately 267,000 highly vulnerable people in Borno. The partner also plans to conduct nutrition screenings, training on infant and young children feeding best practices, counseling through community support groups, and nutrition outreach and treatment through a mobile therapeutic program team.

Approximately 242,000 IDPs were located in Cameroon’s Far North Region as of October, according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM). The figure represents a slight increase of nearly 2 percent compared to the 238,000 IDPs identified in August. IOM attributes the increase to additional displacement in Logone-et-Chari, Mayo-Tsanaga, Mayo-Danay, and Mayo-Sava departments; Logone-et-Chari accounts for more than half of IDPs—nearly 127,300 people. Armed conflict displaced approximately 93 percent of IDPs, while the remaining 7 percent cited climatic events as the reason for displacement.

The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and FEWS NET estimate that Chad’s 2017 national cereal production will produce yields near the five-year average; however, dry conditions in July and August negatively affected crop production in some regions, including Lac. Furthermore, the pastoral lean season in northern Lac will likely begin by February 2018, earlier than its typical start in April, as low rainfall has hindered pasture regeneration. FEWS NET anticipates that vulnerable populations in Lac will likely face Crisis levels of acute food insecurity between February and May 2018, despite ongoing humanitarian assistance.

The GoC, in collaboration with humanitarian actors, recently released an updated CH report indicating that approximately 187,000 people could experience Crisis or worse levels of acute food insecurity in Lac between June and August 2018. The figure represents a 52 percent increase from the 123,000 people projected to experience Crisis or worse levels during the same period in 2017, and includes nearly double the number of people expected to face Emergency levels of acute food insecurity in 2017.

In October, the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) supported treatment for more than 1,800 children ages 6–59 months experiencing severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Lac; UNICEF has admitted nearly 20,200 children for SAM treatment in the region to date in 2017. Approximately 90 percent of the children admitted for therapeutic care recovered and were discharged, surpassing both the national and Sphere minimum standards.

During 2018, approximately 2.3 million people in Niger will likely require humanitarian assistance, including an estimated 419,000 people in Diffa, according to the 2018 Niger HNO. Although nearly 80 percent of the total population in need is located in other areas of the country, Diffa continues to face the most severe humanitarian needs, with approximately 50 percent of the population requiring assistance.esponse interventions to address GBV and child protection needs.

The UN has allocated $13.4 million to the Nigeria Humanitarian Fund (NHF)—a country-based pooled fund managed by OCHA—to support more than 20 multi-sector relief projects that aim to assist up to 950,000 people in Nigeria. The contribution, the second allocation for 2017, will enable improved and expanded sexual and reproductive health services for nearly 130,000 women and adolescent girls in Borno; delivery of mental health care services to vulnerable children, women, and men; strengthen medical services for victims of GBV, and improve access to safe drinking water and sanitation infrastructure for 125,000 people.

As of December 14, international donors had contributed approximately $737.1 million, or nearly 70 percent of the total appeal, toward the 2017 Humanitarian Response Plan for Nigeria.

Years of conflict perpetuated by Boko Haram and Islamic State of Iraq and Syria–West Africa have triggered a humanitarian crisis in Nigeria and surrounding countries in the Lake Chad Basin region, including Cameroon, Chad, and Niger. The escalating violence—including deliberate attacks on civilians and relief workers—has displaced more than 2 million people; hindered agricultural production, livelihoods, and cross-border trade; prevented delivery of humanitarian assistance; and restricted affected populations from accessing basic services in the four countries.

The UN estimates that nearly 11 million people in the region require humanitarian assistance, including approximately 8.5 million people in northeastern Nigeria’s three most-affected states—Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe. Populations in the Lake Chad Basin remain highly dependent on emergency food assistance to meet basic food needs, in addition to requiring emergency health, nutrition, protection, shelter, and WASH interventions.

On November 10, 2016, USAID activated a DART to lead the U.S. Government response to the humanitarian crisis in northeastern Nigeria. USAID also stood up a Washington, D.C.-based Response Management Team to support the DART.

U.S. Chargé d’Affaires, a.i., Matthew D. Smith, U.S. Ambassador Geeta Pasi, and U.S. Ambassador W. Stuart Symington have re-declared disasters for FY 2018 due to the ongoing complex emergencies and humanitarian crises in Cameroon, Chad, and Nigeria, respectively.

Last updated: December 19, 2017

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