Lake Chad Complex Emergency Fact Sheet #1 FY2018

October 26, 2017

Number of new cholera cases decreases, with no new related deaths recorded since October 11

Militant attacks result in more than 30 civilian casualties in Nigeria’s Borno State in late October

WFP reaches 1.3 million beneficiaries with emergency food assistance in Nigeria’s Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe states during September

Numbers At A Glance

8.5 million

Population Requiring Humanitarian Assistance in Nigeria’s Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe States

1.62 million

IDPs in Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe


IDPs in Niger


IDPs in Cameroon


IDPs in Chad


Nigerian Refugees in Cameroon, Chad, and Niger

Humanitarian Funding

For the Lake Chad Basin Response

USAID/OFDA $132,049,968
USAID/FFP $306,173,519
USAID Nigeria $6,182,734
Total $444,406,221

Armed actors continue to target civilian populations across the Lake Chad Basin region. Three late October attacks near Borno’s capital city of Maiduguri resulted in at least 13 civilian deaths and nearly 20 injuries, according to international media. In addition, the UN reports that a mid-September attack in Cameroon’s Far North Region displaced nearly 1,700 people within Mayo-Tsanaga Department.

Borno State Ministry of Health (SMoH) officials reported a decrease in the number of new cholera cases in recent weeks, with no new suspected cases recorded in Borno’s acutely affected Dikwa Local Government Area (LGA) from October 12–24 and no additional related deaths reported in the state since October 11. Relief actors, including USAID partners, continue to provide health care services and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) support to cholera-affected communities.

An estimated 14 percent of internally displaced persons (IDPs) surveyed in Borno from July to September will likely to return to places of origin in the near future, according to a recent non-governmental organization (NGO) report. Respondents cited improved security and access to food and shelter in areas of origin as central factors in deciding whether to return.

In September, USAID/FFP partner the UN World Food Program (WFP) provided emergency food assistance to approximately 1.3 million people in Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe, representing the most individuals reached during a single month since WFP began emergency food assistance activities in northeastern Nigeria in March 2016.

SMoH authorities in Borno reported fewer than 200 new suspected or confirmed cholera cases from October 16–22, a decrease of approximately 83 percent from the peak of more than 1,200 new cases recorded during the week of September 4. Health actors have not recorded a cholera-related death since October 11. The overall case fatality rate (CFR) decreased from the peak of nearly 7.2 percent as of August 31 to approximately 1.2 percent as of October 24; however, the current CFR still exceeds the UN World Health Organization (WHO) emergency threshold of 1 percent.

SMoH officials recorded nearly 5,200 suspected and confirmed cholera cases, including 61 associated deaths, between mid-August and October 24. More than 50 percent of all cholera cases occurred in Borno’s Jere LGA, while the state’s Monguno and Dikwa LGAs comprised approximately 34 percent and 14 percent of cases, respectively. Humanitarian organizations continue to treat cholera cases and reduce transmission by chlorinating water points, disinfecting communal areas, distributing hygiene kits, and promoting proper sanitation practices.

On October 22, a person-borne improvised explosive device (PBIED) detonation in Borno’s Muna Garage area resulted in at least 13 civilian deaths and five injuries, according to international media. Two individuals detonated PBIEDs in Muna Dalti IDP camp near Muna Garage on the same day, injuring more than 10 people. The Government of Nigeria deployed explosive ordnance disposal and other police teams in response to the incidents.

Approximately 86 percent of IDP households in Borno will likely continue residing in current locations in the medium-to-long term, according to a July–September survey conducted by the Norwegian Refugee Council in partnership with the Danish Refugee Council, REACH Initiative, and the Protection Sector Working Group—the coordinating body for humanitarian protection activities in Nigeria, comprising UN agencies, NGOs, and other stakeholders. Approximately 23 percent of the nearly 3,500 households surveyed indicated intentions to integrate into current communities of residence, while 63 percent of households reported a desire to return to places of origin but lacked concrete plans. The remaining 14 percent of surveyed households reported plans to return to areas of origin in the near future.

Improved security and access to food and shelter were key factors in IDPs’ decisions, according to the survey. However, nearly half of all surveyed IDPs had not received information from places of origin since departure, and more than 70 percent had not received news related to planned areas of relocation.

In September, WFP provided emergency food assistance to approximately 1.3 million people in Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe through cash-based transfers and in-kind food distributions. The figure represents the highest number of beneficiaries reached during a single month since WFP began emergency food assistance activities in northeastern Nigeria in March 2016.

In addition, USAID/FFP NGO partners reached more than 491,000 people in Borno and Yobe with emergency food assistance during September. With USAID/FFP support, the organizations distributed in-kind food assistance in areas with poorly functioning markets and cash-based transfers for food in localities with functional markets, improving access to food and bolstering local economies. Partners also conducted complementary nutrition and hygiene activities, including acute malnutrition screenings for children ages five years and younger and counseling on infant and young child feeding practices for caregivers.

A USAID/OFDA NGO partner continues to deliver critical health and nutrition services to conflict-affected populations in Maiduguri, Monguno, and newly accessible areas of Borno. Since January, partner-managed medical teams have conducted more than 50,000 pediatric nutrition consultations, provided prenatal and postnatal services to more than 3,800 women, and treated more than 5,600 children experiencing severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The NGO also provides specialized treatment for complicated SAM cases that require intensive care through its support of a 29-bed maternal and child health center in Monguno.

Suspected Boko Haram attacks from September 16–17 prompted nearly 1,700 people to flee Mayo-Tsanaga’s Guedsinad Locality to neighboring localities, the UN reports. The attacks damaged several structures and resulted in significant loss of household items and livestock. In response, humanitarian actors provided relief commodities, such as tarpaulins, to displaced persons; however, insecurity has impeded further humanitarian operations in the area, including needs assessments and delivery of additional relief supplies.

As of September 22, approximately 90,000 Nigerian refugees were sheltering in northern Cameroon, including more than 58,000 refugees located in Minawao refugee camp, UNHCR reports. IDPs, host community members, and refugees in Far North face chronic vulnerabilities, limited access to basic social services, and worsening insecurity, resulting in high levels of food insecurity and malnutrition and an elevated risk of disease outbreak, the UN reports.

In August, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) estimated that nearly 238,000 IDPs were located in Far North, an increase of nearly 2,100 people compared to the 235,900 IDPs in July. The increase likely resulted from armed actor attacks in Logone-et-Chari and Mayo-Tsanaga departments, where IOM identified 100 percent of new IDPs. Logone-et-Chari continued to host the majority of IDPs, approximately 54 percent of the region’s total, while Mayo-Sava and Mayo-Tsanaga departments hosted approximately 25 percent and 15 percent, respectively. Diamare, Mayo-Danay, and Mayo-Kani departments hosted the remaining 6 percent of IDPs. Armed conflict in the region displaced more than 90 percent of IDPs, while flooding and other climatic factors displaced less than 10 percent.

IOM also reported that nearly 61,100 people had returned to areas of origin in Far North as of August, an increase of approximately 3 percent compared to the nearly 59,400 returnees in July. Logone-et-Chari and Mayo-Tsanaga comprised nearly 68 percent of the total returnees as of August.

Local authorities, in coordination with the Government of the Republic of Cameroon (GoRC) military, continued relocation efforts in September for approximately 12,500 IDPs from Mayo-Sava’s Kolofata town to a resettlement site on the outskirts of the town. As of September 30, local officials had relocated approximately 2,500 IDPs to the site, UNICEF reports. In addition, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported that the GoRC forcibly returned nearly 40 Nigerians from Cameroon’s Kolofata town to the Cameroon–Nigeria border in late September.

Heavy rains and flooding in recent weeks displaced an estimated 890 people, destroyed several houses, damaged food stocks, and injured or killed livestock in Logone-et-Chari’s Zina commune, according to the UN. The flooding prompted a joint UN–GoRC mission to Zina on September 29 to evaluate humanitarian conditions and needs. Local authorities provided immediate assistance to affected households, while relief actors remained mobilized to support GoRC relief efforts.

Health officials in Niger reported nearly 2,000 suspected and confirmed cases of hepatitis E, including 38 related deaths, from late April to October 12, according to the UN. The CFR of 1.9 percent as of mid-October represents a decline compared to late April. Niger’s conflict-affected Diffa Region continues to comprise the majority of the cases—more than 70 percent. In response to the outbreak, the Government of Niger (GoN) Ministry of Health and international relief actors are coordinating disease prevention and treatment activities, such as case management, community awareness-building, and WASH interventions.

As of early October, the floods in Niger had resulted in at least 56 deaths, affected nearly 207,000 people, and destroyed approximately 12,000 houses, in addition to significant loss of crops and livestock and extensive damage to infrastructure, according to the GoN. On October 5, U.S. Ambassador to Niger Eunice S. Reddick declared a disaster due to the humanitarian impacts of widespread flooding that occurred between June and September.

In response, the GoN deployed personnel to flood-affected areas to assist with assessments and humanitarian efforts and distributed more than 332 metric tons of food commodities to flood-affected communities. In addition, USAID/OFDA provided $50,000 to support the distribution of emergency relief items, including shelter materials, to the most affected populations in Dosso and Niamey regions.

Insecurity in the Lake Chad Basin has exacerbated challenges faced by farmers and herders, including damage to crops and loss of livestock, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Reduced access to grazing areas and border closures have weakened livestock health and heightened tensions between farmers and herders.

With support from the Government of Belgium, FAO is providing agriculture and livelihoods assistance—including meat processing activities and cattle fairs—to more than 17,000 vulnerable people in Cameroon’s Far North and Chad’s Lac Region in response to critical needs.

In affected areas of Niger and Nigeria, FAO also distributes small livestock, feed, and veterinary supplies to support host community, IDP, and returnee populations. In addition, USAID/OFDA supports FAO in providing agricultural products, such as fertilizers and seeds; cash transfers for livestock purchase; and training on farming and nutrition practices to vulnerable households in northeastern Nigeria.

As of October 26, international donors had contributed approximately $670.1 million, or nearly 64 percent of the total funding appeal, for the 2017 Humanitarian Response Plan for Nigeria.

Following escalated violence in northeastern Nigeria, the Government of Nigeria declared a state of emergency in Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe in May 2013. Between 2013 and 2015, Boko Haram attacks generated significant displacement within Nigeria and eventually to the surrounding countries of Cameroon, Chad, and Niger. As Boko Haram expanded its reach in Nigeria, controlling territory and launching attacks in neighboring countries, the scale of displacement continued to increase, and deteriorations in markets and loss of livelihoods exacerbated conflict-related food insecurity.

By early 2016, advances by the Nigerian military and the MNJTF—comprising forces from Benin, Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria—had recovered large swathes of territory from Boko Haram in Nigeria, revealing acute food insecurity and malnutrition in newly accessible areas. Insecurity, including attacks by Boko Haram and the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria–West Africa, continues to restrict access to basic services, and both displaced people and vulnerable host communities are in need of emergency food assistance, safe drinking water, and relief commodities, as well as health, nutrition, protection, shelter, and WASH interventions.

In October and November 2016, U.S. Ambassador Michael S. Hoza, U.S. Ambassador Geeta Pasi, U.S. Ambassador Eunice S. Reddick, and U.S. Chargé d’Affaires, a.i., David J. Young, redeclared disasters for the complex emergencies in Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria, respectively.

On November 10, 2016, USAID activated a Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) to lead the USG response to the humanitarian crisis in northeastern Nigeria. USAID also stood up a Washington, D.C.-based Response Management Team to support the DART.

Last updated: October 30, 2017

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