Wheat Flour Commodity Fact Sheet

WBSCM Material Description and Number

FLOUR, ALL PURPOSE BAG-50 KG    100562
FLOUR, BREAD BAG-50 KG    100563

General Information

Wheat flour is a processed product available as all-purpose or bread flour and specially fortified for food aid purposes. All-purpose flour is milled from Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter or Hard White or Soft White wheat classes, or any combination thereof, and fortified with a vitamin-mineral premix. Bread flour is milled from the Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, or Hard White Wheat classes and then fortified. For more information on United States wheat production, including crop varieties and harvest locations, refer to the United States Wheat Associates (http://www.uswheat.org). For more information on wheat flour milling, refer to the North American Millers’ Association (http://www.namamillers.org/consumer-page/). Wheat flour is packaged in 50-kilogram polypropylene woven bags whose fabric contains an inhibitor to resist ultraviolet absorption and an anti-skid coating. Flour is susceptible to infestation by pests and should be protected, inspected often, and fumigated as necessary. Damaged packages should be segregated and repaired or repackaged as soon as possible; if stored properly, flour has a minimum shelf life of one year. For full product specifications refer to the USDA Commodity Requirements Document for all-purpose wheat flour/bread flour. The appropriate Web Based Supply Chain Management (WBSCM) code should be used to order all-purpose flour or bread flour based on the specific baking characteristics needed.

Programming Guidance

Wheat flour may be used in emergency and development settings as illustrated by the 2011 Food Aid Quality Review (FAQR) decision trees:

  • Emergencies: Wheat flour may be used with oil and a pulse in the second phase of emergency food distribution. In a longer-term emergency, wheat flour may be provided in Food for Assets, Food for Work, Food for Training, as well as Vulnerable Group Feeding, and Food for Education programs. Either corn soy blend (CSB) or a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) should be added as a targeted supplement to this ration, for children under two (U2).
  • Development: Wheat flour may be used as part of a general household ration, along with a pulse and oil, where this is appropriate. Wheat flour may also be provided in Food for Assets, Food for Work, Food for Training, as well as Vulnerable Group Feeding, and Food for Education programs.

Nutrition/Preparation Information

Wheat flour may be used in countries where wheat is an accepted staple grain, such as North Africa, the Middle East and parts of Asia. It is a good source of carbohydrate and is fortified with a micronutrient premix containing iron, zinc and vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B9 (folic acid), B12, and D3 per USDA Commodity Requirements. Recent improvements to the premix will enhance the bioavailability of iron by using the EDTA form, increase zinc and vitamin B12, remove calcium and change levels of the other vitamins and minerals to keep in line with recommendations in the FAQR report. Wheat flour may be used for a variety of products worldwide, ranging from noodles, breads, pastas, couscous, tortillas and porridges. All-purpose flour is ready to use, easy to prepare, and more versatile than bread flour because of its lower gluten content. Although the product has less protein, it is easily used to make a wide variety of baked, boiled, roasted or fried products. Bread flour is ready to use and ideal for bread making. Its extra gluten content contributes an additional small amount of protein as compared with all-purpose flour. For recipes, refer to the North American Millers’ Association (http://www.namamillers.org/issues/food-aid/food-aid-recipes/).

Nutritional Content

The nutrient values provided in the table below are for the finished product which consists of either all-purpose flour and micronutrient premix or bread flour and micronutrient premix.  They were calculated using the USDA Nutrient Database data for Wheat flour, white, all-purpose, unenriched (http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl), Wheat flour, bread, unenriched (http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl) and the USDA CRD for All-Purpose and Bread Flour. The micronutrient values are target levels for vitamins and minerals.

 

Nutrient

Premix per 100g

All-purpose Flour Total per 100g

(Intrinsic + Premix)

Bread Flour Total per 100g

(Intrinsic + Premix)

Water (g)

0.0

11.92

13.60

Energy (kcal)

0.0

364.00

361.00

Protein (g)

0.0

10.33

11.98

Total Lipid (fat) (g)

0.0

0.98

1.66

Carbohydrate

0.0

76.31

72.53

Fiber, total dietary (g)

0.0

2.70

2.40

Sugars, total (g)

0.0

0.27

0.31

Minerals

 

 

 

Calcium (mg)

0.0

15.00

15.00

Iron (mg Ferrous Fumerate)

0.0

1.17

0.00

Iron (EDTA)

4.00

4.00

4.00

Iron: total

 

5.17

4.90

Magnesium (mg)

0.0

22.00

25.00

Phosphorous (mg)

0.0

108.00

97.00

Potassium (mg)

0.0

107.00

100.00

Sodium (mg)

0.0

2.00

2.00

Zinc (mg)

2.40

3.28

3.25

Vitamins

 

 

 

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid (mg)

0.0

0.00

0.00

Thiamin (mg)

0.40

0.52

1.20

Riboflavin (mg)

0.40

0.44

1.00

Niacin (mg)

4.00

5.25

5.00

Vitamin B6 (mg)

0.40

0.44

0.44

Folate, DFE (µg)

154.00

180.00

187.00

Vitamin B12  (µg)

11.00

11.00

11.00

Vitamin A (µg)

110.00

110.00

110.00

Vitamin A (IU)

 

0.00

2.00

Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) (mg)

0.40

0.06

0.40

Vitamin D (D3) (µg)

2.0

2.00

2.00

Vitamin K (phylloquinone)  (µg)

0.0

0.30

0.30

Lipids

 

 

 

Fatty acids, total saturated (g)

0.0

0.16

0.24

Fatty acids, total monosaturated (g)

0.0

0.09

0.14

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated (g)

0.0

0.41

0.73

Cholesterol (mg)

0.0

0.00

0.00

Other

 

 

 

Caffeine

0.0

 0.00

0.00

 

USDA Commodity Requirements Document

http://www.fsa.usda.gov/Internet/FSA_File/wfbf7.pdf

Shelf Life/Best if Used By Date (BUBD)

  • Shelf life - 12 months unopened - 6 to 8 months after opening   
  • BUBD - 18 months after packaging

  
Sources

North American Millers Association (n.d). Food Aid. Retrieved August June 17, 2013 from: http://www.namamillers.org/issues/food-aid/

North American Millers Association (n.d). Issue Brief: Wheat Milling Process. Retrieved June 17, 2013: from: http://www.namamillers.org/education/wheat-milling-process/

North American Millers Association (n.d). Wheat Flour: Nutritive Value. Retrieved August 6, 2012 from: http://www.namamillers.org/issues/food-aid/aid-products-nutrition/wheat-flour-nutritive-value/

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2013. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 26. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page. Retrieved December 6, 2013 from: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2012. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25.  Wheat Flour, White, All-Purpose, Unenriched. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page.  Retrieved on August 29, 2012 from: http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2012. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25.  Wheat Flours, Bread, Unenriched. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page. Retrieved on August 29, 2012 from: http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Agency. 2012. USDA Commodity Requirements. WFBF7 All-purpose Wheat Flour/Bread Flour for Use in Export Programs.  Retrieved August 6, 2012 from: http://www.fsa.usda.gov/Internet/FSA_File/wfbf7.pdf

U.S. Wheat Associates. 2012. Buyer's Guide. Retrieved August 6, 2012 from: http://www.uswheat.org/buyersGuide/how2buy

Webb, P., B. Rogers, I. Rosenberg, N. Schlossman, C. Wanke, J. Bagriansky, K. Sadler, Q. Johnson, J. Tilahun, A. Reese Masterson, A. Narayan.  2011.  Delivering Improved Nutrition: Recommendations for Changes to U.S. Food Aid Products and Programming.  Boston, MA: Tufts University. From: http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADZ842.pdf

Last updated: August 15, 2014

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