Historically, the 103-km Kishim to Fayzabad Road in Badakhshan Province was part of the ancient Silk Road from the Mediterranean Sea to the Far East. Today, the road is a vital link in the Afghan Government’s ambitious plans to construct a two-lane highway to the international border with China. However, before the road rehabilitation project began, this important route was a primitive, variable-width dirt road with a limited number of poorly maintained drainage structures. Additionally, frequent floods and mudslides due to earthquakes, rain, and snow had contributed greatly to the deterioration of the road. USAID undertook the reconstruction of the road in 2009 to meet the requirements set forth in the 2005 Ministry of Public Works Interim Road and Highway Standards. A late 2009 evaluation of this road project showed that the number of new businesses more than doubled (such as fuel stations and markets), passenger bus activity increased, and prices in markets fell.