Afghanistan has one of the highest maternal, infant and child mortality rates in the world. To assess objectively the progress made in the health sector toward achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and the Afghan National Development Strategy objectives, the Ministry of Public Health implemented a modified Demographic and Health Survey to measure maternal mortality and other causes of death in Afghanistan. The study provides national and regional data based on a nationally representative sample of 24,000 households. The study provides the first national baseline of maternal mortality in Afghanistan. Support from UNICEF, UNFPA, and WHO complements the project.