16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence - Quiz Transcript


Test Your Knowledge - 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence
 

1.   Which of these is NOT a form of gender-based violence?

A. Early marriage
B. Female genital cutting
C. Human trafficking
D. Prenatal sex selection
E. All are forms of gender-based violence

Answer: E

Gender-based violence (GBV) takes on many forms and can occur throughout the lifecycle, from the prenatal phase through childhood and adolescence, the reproductive years, and old age. Types of GBV include female infanticide; harmful traditional practices such as early and forced marriage, “honor” killings, and female genital mutilation/cutting; child sexual abuse and slavery; trafficking in persons; sexual coercion and abuse; neglect; domestic violence; and elder abuse.

The 1995 Beijing Platform for Action expanded the definition to include: violations of the rights of women in situations of armed conflict, including systematic rape, sexual slavery and forced pregnancy; forced sterilization, forced abortion, coerced or forced use of contraceptives; and prenatal sex selection and female infanticide.

Sources:

USAID (2012) U.S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender-Based Violence Globally. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PDACT888.pdf

United Nations, Fourth World Conference on Women (1995) Beijing Platform for Action. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/

 

2. Nearly 50 percent of all sexual assaults worldwide are against:

A. Boys 15 and younger
B. Girls 15 and younger
C. Girls and young women aged 15-24
D. Women aged 25-35
E. Elderly women aged 55 and older

Answer: B

Younger women and adolescent girls are especially vulnerable to gender-based violence, with almost half of all sexual assaults committed against girls aged15 years or younger. High numbers of young women report that their first sexual experience was coerced.

Women who have been sexually abused once are more likely to suffer it again, with 60 percent of women whose first sexual experience was forced encountering sexual violence later in life. Sexual abuse and incest in childhood can have lifelong effects on sexual behavior and reproductive health. Abused adolescent girls are more likely to undergo early and repeated pregnancies and abortions and to contract sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.

Source:

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) (2005) State of World Population 2005: The Promise of Equality: Gender Equality, Reproductive Health, and the Millennium Development Goals.

 

3.  While gender-based violence has personal costs for those who experience it, it does not have an effect on national economies. 

True or False

Answer:  False

The cost of gender-based violence to national governments is manifested in higher health care expenditures; demands on courts, police, and schools; and losses in educational achievement, worker earnings, and productivity. 

In Bangladesh, a USAID-funded study by CARE estimated that the economic impact of domestic violence against women was about 2 percent of the country’s GDP – almost equal to the government’s total annual expenditure on health and nutrition. Another study in Chile found that women’s lost earnings due to violence came to $1.56 billion – more than 2 percent of the country’s GDP. 

Sources: 

CARE and USAID (2012) Summary of Domestic Violence Against Women - Cost to the Nation Report. The Cost of Violence Against Women (COVAW) Initiative. http://www.carebangladesh.org/rs_pdetail.php?publishid=92

USAID (2009) A Guide to Programming Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response Activities. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADO561.pdf

 

4. In the developing world, one in how many girls is married before the age of 18?

A. Three  
B. Five
C. Six
D. Seven
E. Ten

Answer: A

Child marriage is defined by UNICEF as “a formal marriage or informal union before age 18”. Being forced into marriage before one is able to give consent violates the basic human rights of boys and girls.

The extent of child marriage is known only retrospectively, as girls who are currently single still face the risk of being married before they reach the age of 18. More than one third of women aged 20–24 in the developing world were married by age 18 – while they were still children – with about one-third married by age 15. In least developed countries, nearly half of women aged 20–24 were married before the age of 18. 

Sources:

UNICEF (2011) Child Marriage. http://www.unicef.org/protection/57929_58008.html

UNICEF (2011) Child Protection from Violence, Exploitation, and Abusehttp://www.unicef.org/publications/index_62280.html

 

5. Married girls have lower rates of:

A. HIV infection
B. Complications from pregnancy and childbirth
C. Domestic violence
D. Education
E. Poverty

Answer: D

Negative consequences of child marriage abound. National and international indicators on maternal health, education, food security, poverty eradication, HIV/AIDS, and gender equality are all negatively correlated with high child marriage rates. Child brides may be cut off from their families and forced to end their formal education. They are under great pressure to prove their fertility, which often results in pregnancies when their bodies are not yet ready, resulting in greater maternal and newborn morbidity.

Many girls who marry often do so against their will and to men who are much older and sexually experienced, making them more likely to experience partner violence and become exposed to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. In addition, women with much older husbands are more likely to become widows, which may create economic and social insecurity.

Sources:

International Center for Research on Women (2011) Solutions to End Child Marriage: What the Evidence Shows.  

UNICEF (2011) Child Protection from Violence, Exploitation, and Abuse. http://www.unicef.org/publications/index_62280.html

USAID (2012) Ending Child Marriage and Meeting the Needs of Married Children: the USAID Vision for Action. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PDACU300.pdf

 

6. Although sexual violence is routinely used as a tactic of warfare, it declines after a conflict ends.

True or False

Answer:  False

Sexual violence, which disproportionately affects women and girls, often spills over into peacetime, when domestic justice systems are at their weakest. Violence is ‘normalized’ during conflict, and as demobilized combatants return home, post-conflict contexts are often characterized by ongoing and sometimes increased levels of violence and insecurity for women.

A study in Liberia in 2007, four years after the end of the conflict, found that in Nimba County, 26 percent of single women and 74 percent of married or separated women had been raped in the previous 18 months. A study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo found that while the number of rapes by combatants declined between 2004 and 2008, the number of reported civilian rapes increased 17-fold.

Source: 

UN Women (2011) Progress of the World's Women 2011-2012: In Pursuit of Justice. http://progress.unwomen.org/pdfs/EN-Report-Progress.pdf

 

Last updated: November 26, 2012

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