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Ethiopia Poverty Assessment 2015 [PDF, 30 MB]
This poverty assessment documents the nature of Ethiopia’s success and examines it drivers. Agricultural growth drove reductions in poverty, bolstered by pro-poor spending on basic services and effective rural safety nets. However, although there is some evidence of manufacturing growth starting to reduce poverty in urban centers at the end of the decade, structural change has been remarkably absent from Ethiopia’s story of progress. The poverty assessment looks forward asking what would be needed to end extreme poverty in Ethiopia. In addition to the current successful recipe of agricultural growth and pro-poor spending, the role of the non-farm rural sector, migration, urban poverty reduction and agricultural productivity gains for women are considered..
Ethiopia Fact Sheet [PDF, 52 KB]
This two-page fact sheet details key demographic, governmental, economic, and social statistics on Ethiopia. Historical charts for key indicators are included.
Summary of Major Programs, FY 2011-2014 [PDF, 172 KB]
A brief description of USAID's major programs and their funding levels.
A USAID study that looks at the links between U.S. food assistance and the duration of civil wars. The article examines the findings of a previous study that established a link between U.S. wheat provision and the length of conflict. This follow-on study examines the data and methods of this work and concludes that food aid is statitically insignificant as a factor in conflict. Other factors have much greater significance.
Development Effectiveness: Ethiopia 2012-2013 [PDF, 837 KB]
This annual report provides an overview of the activities and successes the Development Assistance Group has achieved in partnership with the Government of Ethiopia, covering a period of 18 months, from January 2012 to July 2013.
The USAID/Ethiopia Country Development Cooperation Strategy (CDCS) builds on the progress in Ethiopia since the last country strategy. Seven years ago, the Mission began implementing its last development strategy: “Breaking the Cycle of Famine” which, in the aftermath of the major drought emergency in 2003 that took the lives of tens of thousands of Ethiopian children, was directed at tackling the underlying causes of vulnerability. Much has changed since 2004, and the efforts made to reduce vulnerability have yielded substantial results. The threat of famine has not been completely removed, but enough progress has been made so that USAID can now focus more on helping Ethiopia transform its economy and society toward middle income status, and by coordinating its efforts more closely with the Government of Ethiopia (GOE), other donors and civil society. USAID's new five year CDCS builds on the Government of Ethiopia's Growth and Transformation Plan with a concerted investment strategy that not only aims to help Ethiopia achieve its development goals, but furthers U.S. trade and investment aims with the most strategically important partner in the region.
Fact Sheet: Gender in Ethiopia [PDF, 290 KB]
Gender equality and women’s empowerment considerations cut across all of USAID’s programming in Ethiopia. By promoting gender equality for economic opportunities, education and supporting the health of women and their families, USAID is creating opportunities for equal participation in society. In addition, USAID is addressing the root causes of domestic violence, child marriage and female genital mutilation in Ethiopia as well as taking steps to enforce and support legislation to protect women and their children from gender-based violence.
Fact Sheet: Nutrition in Ethiopia [PDF, 231 KB]
At USAID in Ethiopia, nutrition programming focuses on promoting dietary diversity and complementary feeding to reduce the number of children suffering from stunting. To keep food safe, USAID programs educate families about the importance of food and water sanitation and hygiene. If disaster strikes, USAID and its partners are on the ground delivering nutritious foods to ensure crises do not have to cause more harm through malnutrition.
USAID is interested in creating a body of knowledge to support effective gender integration into future Development Credit Authority (DCA) programming. Therefore, this report focuses on the motivation, impact, and lessons learned of utilizing a DCA risk-sharing agreement, coupled with technical assistance, that specifically targets women-owned small to medium enterprise.
Fact Sheet: Reading in Ethiopia [PDF, 155 KB]
Challenges are great in this nation of nearly 90 million people, with more than 18 million students enrolled in primary school (grades 1-8). Very poor achievement in the early grades keeps children from developing a foundation for future learning. Teachers are not trained to teach in ways that maximize student learning. In most of the country, school days are scheduled for half a day, greatly minimizing the time children spend in school. Rapid growth in enrollment, currently at 96 percent, has greatly contributed to the decline in quality. Large classes—more than 100 children in many cases—and a lack of adequate textbooks and teaching/learning materials exacerbate the low levels of achievement. Quality of education is the single biggest challenge. It is also the priority of the Ministry of Education.
A comprehensive assessment of rural youth livelihoods in Ethiopia conducted over 6 weeks in May and June 2012.
Ethiopia Early Grade Reading Assessment [PDF, 5 MB]
In May and June 2010, an early grade reading assessment, a study of the reading skills in Ethiopia in a variety of areas, was performed in eight regions in Ethiopia. The purpose was to investigate the children’s reading skills in the context of the General Education Quality Improvement Program and the rapidly changing primary school environment in Ethiopia.
In The International Energy Agency’s (IEA) Africa Energy Outlook – a Special Report in the 2014 World Energy Outlook series – offers a most comprehensive analytical study of energy in Africa, specifically in sub-Saharan Africa, the epicentre of the global challenge to overcome energy poverty. This report finds that increasing access to reliable, modern energy can turbo-charge economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. The region’s existing energy resources are more than sufficient to meet its overall needs, but they are unevenly distributed and under-developed, a fact that speaks strongly towards the benefits of regional energy integration, another key finding of the report.
Feed the Future
This study explores the relationship between pre-school children’s food consumption and household agricultural production. Using a large household survey from rural Ethiopia, the study finds that increasing household production diversity leads to considerable improvements in children’s diet diversity. However, the study also documents how this non-separability of consumption and production does not hold for households that have access to food markets. These findings imply that nutrition-sensitive agricultural interventions that push for market-integration are likely to be more effective in reducing under nutrition than those promoting production diversity.
Ethiopia has a major ongoing program of land demarcation and land rights certification, and this paper is an input to the development of a strategy for expansion of the certification program to pastoralist regions. The selection of case studies is slanted toward arid land situations in which migration figures significantly, in recognition that these characterize most pastoralist systems in east and southeast Ethiopia. The recommendations in this paper are generic, and almost certainly will need significant adjustments to be really useful in the Ethiopian context.
This paper brings up potential land use rights in terms of transactions. The paper aims at promoting discussions and more studies in the land transaction aspect of the land tenure system of the country. Doing so would help to encourage good practices and to indicate areas requiring improvements. Key words: legal instrument, public property, land use right, transaction, tenure security.
USAID's Livestock Market Development project is designed to improve the incomes and nutritional status of Ethiopian farmers and other stakeholders along the livestock value chain. Key goals include increasing productivity and competitiveness of selected livestock value chains, and spurring investment and innovation all in an environmentally and economically sustainable way. This report explores market opportunities, Ethiopian competitiveness, and recommendations for Ethiopian export development in selected export markets for live animals and livestock products including meat, leather and leather products. All of these products are derived from cattle, goats and sheep endemic to Ethiopia.
Livestock Market Development: Five Year Strategy [PDF, 1 MB]
This document describes the Livestock Market Development (LMD) project's strategy to support the improvement of Ethiopia's livestock industry. It includes strategies for the three LMD value chains: Meat and Live Animals; Hides, Skins and Leather; and Dairy Products.
USAID prepared separate value chain analyses for Meat and Live Animals; Hides, Skins and Leather; and Dairy products. Each Value Chain Analysis (VCA) has been prepared as a stand-alone document. There are numerous linkages amongst the value chains, and these are discussed. The VCAs describe and analyze the market factors, value chain performance against key metrics, product flow, core actors and their transactional and collaborative relationships, incentives for investment, inputs and services, other supporting actors, enabling environment, and gender concerns. Main findings are summarized in terms of barriers to value chain competitiveness and possible responses.
Lifting Livelihoods with Livestock [PDF, 3 MB]
A review of REST’s livestock value addition practices in Raya Azebo, Ethiopia and potentials for diversification by Yacob Aklilu. From November 2011.
Milk Matters: The Impact of Dry Season Livestock Support on Milk Supply and Child Nutrition in Somali Region, Ethiopia [PDF, 3 MB]
This report covers two cohort studies designed to assess the impact of community-defined livestock interventions on the nutritional status of young children over the dry season in the Somali Region of Ethiopia. Where the international response to malnutrition has typically been reactionary in these areas, with the provision of a food basket and establishment of selective feeding as acute malnutrition rises, this study aimed to reveal the potential cost savings, both short and long term, economic and social, of a more preventative approach.
Ethiopia is a country of contrasts. Some regions produce food surpluses each year, while others face chronic food insecurity. Recognizing the central role of agriculture in the economic development of the country, USAID’s Feed the Future (FtF) Strategy addresses Ethiopia’s strengths and opportunities across its regions, with a particular focus on productive areas that have previously received little investment..
The Next Stage in Dairy Development for Ethiopia [PDF, 1.81 MB]
This study takes a value chain approach to identify the constraints, opportunities, interventions and possible impact for the dairy sub-sector from input supply to final consumption of milk and milk products. The report identifies areas where USAID/Ethiopia funds can be leveraged to gain maximum impact for the largest number of beneficiaries.
Food by Prescription: Measuring the Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Prescribed Food on Recovery from Malnutrition and HIV Disease Progression among HIV+ Adult Clients in Ethiopia [PDF, 922 KB]
Great strides have been made over the last 20 years in the long-term management of HIV infection in developing countries, resulting in improved immune function, reduced mortality, and prolonged survival. The USAID Ethiopia Food by Prescription program provides therapeutic food along with nutritional assessment and counseling to malnourished HIV+ individuals.
Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2011 [PDF, 3 MB]
The 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey was conducted by the Central Statistical Agency under the auspices of the Ministry of Health. The preliminary report containing results of selected variables was released in October 2011 and this final report presents the details of the findings of the survey including results released earlier.
Working Together With Communities: A Case Study of IFHP and Ethiopia's Health Extension Program [PDF, 3 MB]
This brochure documents advances made in the Health Extension Program with particular emphasis on nutrition interventions. Gursum Woreda in East Hararghe Zone is used as an example to show the efforts made by the health system at each level to make the Health Extension Program a success.
Fact Sheet: Resilience in Ethiopia [PDF, 340 KB]
For Horn of Africa governments and development partners, the response to the 2011 drought demonstrated how taking steps to plan for a disaster rather than simply reacting to it could increase the resilience of populations. A focus on resilience—the ability of people, households, communities, countries and systems to mitigate, adapt to, and recover from shocks and stresses—will strengthen development investments and facilitate sustainable growth. In Ethiopia, USAID is building resilience through targeted humanitarian aid, safety net support for pastoralists and farmers, and joint planning with other USAID missions in east Africa to promote strategic collaboration.
Fact Sheet: Water in Ethiopia [PDF, 179 KB]
Deaths due to water, sanitation and hygiene related diseases—exacerbated by only 49 percent of the population having access to an improved water source and 21 percent to an improved sanitation facility (not shared with other households) —affect 17.8 percent of the population in Ethiopia. Communities without access to safe water depend on scarce surface water sources like unprotected springs, ponds, streams and rivers, many of which are located far from households and contain severe waterborne diseases. Additionally, drought seriously impacts pastoral areas, causing traditional water sources for people and their livestock to disappear.
New guidelines that support resilience thinking and practice in the drylands recognize the value of livelihoods-based approaches. Nationally these include Ethiopia’s national guidelines for livestock projects in pastoralist areas during droughtv, and globally, the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards.vi However, both of these guidelines draw heavily on an earlier approach to handling drought called the Drought Cycle Management (DCM) model, because the model links effective relief support to long-term development planning. The DCM model has been adopted by Kenya’s National Drought Management Agency and Ethiopia’s Disaster Risk Management - Agriculture Task Force. This technical brief describes the DCM model and makes the case for further mainstreaming DCM in regional and national drought resilience planning.
This report primarily describes the activities and achievements of USAID/East Africa, USAID/Ethiopia and USAID/Kenya on implementing the Horn of Africa Resilience and Growth Action Plan. Each USAID mission received additional funding from 2011 for resilience related activities. This new funding totalled $178 million over a five year period and allowed a further $451 million of program activities to be leveraged from other USAID programs. The goal of the Horn of Africa Joint Planning Cells is to directly benefit 10 million people and reduce the region’s emergency caseload by one million people during a drought of 2011 magnitude within five years.
This book documents changing trends, lessons learned, and results proven by USAID and our implementing partners in helping pastoral communities build resilience in the dryland areas of Ethiopia. We hope these examples will serve others working to help these pastoral communities prosper and achieve longlasting economic benefits while preventing or responding to the human and environmental devastation caused by extreme climactic events. By building more resilient communities and stimulating sustainable livelihoods, USAID and our many partners aim, ultimately, to put an end to the many factors that generate recurring cycles of disaster and extreme poverty.
Water Development in Ethiopia's Pastoral Areas: A synthesis of existing knowledge and experience [PDF, 4 MB]
In Ethiopia’s arid areas, where pastoralism is the dominant livelihood, practical field experience over the past forty years indicates that water development divorced from an in-depth understanding of pastoral livelihoods can compromise sustainable development in the long term, even if it stems water shortages in the short term.
IASC Real Time Evaluation of the Humanitarian Response to the Horn of Africa Drought Crisis [PDF, 4 MB]
This real time evaluation is one of four commissioned by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee, looking at the response to the Horn of Africa drought and food security crisis. In total some $2.8 billion was raised for the response, with $820 million going to Ethiopia. In such large scale operations it is now standard practice to commission inter-agency evaluations.
Money to burn? Comparing the costs and benefits of drought responses in pastoralist areas of Ethiopia [PDF, 777 KB]
From the Journal of Humanitarian Assistance.
A Climate Trend Analysis of Ethiopia [PDF, 4 MB]
This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by USAID's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia.
USAID Global Policy and Strategy Papers
With this strategy, USAID aims to decrease chronic malnutrition, measured by stunting, by 20 percent through the U.S. Government’s Feed the Future and Global Health initiatives, the Office of Food for Peace development programs, resilience efforts, and other nutrition investments. Within Feed the Future targeted inventions areas, USAID will concentrate resources and monitor impact to reduce the number of stunted children by a minimum of 2 million. In humanitarian crises, USAID aims to mitigate increases in acute malnutrition with the goal of maintaining Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) below the emergency threshold of 15 percent. In 2025, we see a world where countries, communities, and families have the capacity to achieve and sustain healthy, well-nourished populations.
USAID’s Democracy, Human Rights and Governance (DRG) Strategy provides a framework to support the establishment and consolidation of inclusive and accountable democracies to advance freedom, dignity, and development. Support for DRG is vital to the pursuit of freedom and national security, and is essential to achieve the Agency’s and the United States Government’s broader social and economic development goals.
USAID Water and Development Strategy 2013 - 2018 [PDF, 2.3 MB]
This is the US Agency for International Development’s (USAID) first globalWater and Development Strategy. It is intended to provide a clear understanding of USAID's approach to water programming. This Strategy emphasizes how sustainable use of water is critical to save lives, promote sustainable development, and achieve humanitarian goals.
The goal of the U.S. Government Action Plan on Children in Adversity is to achieve a world in which all children grow up within protective family care and free from deprivation, exploitation, and danger.
While we cannot stop shocks from happening, USAID can – and must – do more to help people withstand them. USAID has been in the vanguard of international momentum to support country and regional plans and build resilience to recurrent crisis. Through this policy and program guidance, we will leverage the broad range of our institutional capabilities to implement innovative programmatic approaches to promote resilience. Through these efforts, we will draw on our mandates to provide lifesaving humanitarian assistance and longer-term development assistance.
To promote economic growth, reduce poverty, and build healthy communities, women and girls must have greater access to and control of key resources and opportunities. Addressing the needs of women and girls as part of efforts to promote economic prosperity will have huge spillover benefits; it will foster economic security and stability for women and men, their families, and whole communities.
Youth in Development [PDF, 1.4 MB]
This Policy on Youth in Development is the first of its kind for USAID. It is both timely and necessary as more than half of the world’s population today is under the age of 30, with the vast majority living in the developing world. The policy is predicated on emerging best and promising practice for youth development and engagement that are gleaned from USAID and partner’s experience in youth programming, as well as through consultations with young people across the developing world.
Ending Child Marriage & Meeting the Needs of Married Children: The USAID VIsion for Action [PDF, 618 KB]
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) seeks to ensure that children are not robbed of their human rights and can live to their full potential. In line with USAID’s Implementation Plan of the U.S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender-Based Violence Globally, development efforts to combat child marriage should take place in regions, countries, and communities where interventions to prevent and respond to child marriage are most needed and most able to achieve results. USAID’s efforts to end child marriage advance efforts to end gender-based violence while strengthening the Agency’s commitment to children in adversity, gender equality, female empowerment, and youth development..
The purpose of this strategy is to establish a government-wide approach that identifies, coordinates, integrates, and leverages current efforts and resources to prevent and respond more effectively to gender-based violence globally. The strategy provides Federal agencies with a set of concrete goals and actions to be implemented and monitored over the course of the next three years.
USAID Policy Framework 2011- 2015 [PDF, 897 KB]
This document, the USAID Policy Framework 2011-2015, is the first in what will become a regular strategic exercise every four years, closely tracking the QDDR cycle. Its purpose is to provide our staff and partners worldwide with a clear sense of our core development priorities, translate the PPD-6 and the QDDR (as well as future iterations of the QDDR and relevant Presidential directives) into more detailed operational principles, and explain how we will apply these principles across our entire portfolio. The Framework also lays out the agenda for institutional reform known as USAID Forward, which is preparing the Agency to respond to the development challenges of the coming decades.
The goal of this policy is to improve the lives of citizens around the world by advancing equality between females and males, and empowering women and girls to participate fully in and benefit from the development of their societies. It will be addressed through integration of gender equality and female empowerment throughout the Agency’s Program Cycle and related processes: in strategic planning, project design and implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. This integrated approach positions the Agency to address gender gaps and the constraints that hold women back.
USAID Education Strategy 2011-2015 [PDF, 589 KB]
In late 2010, USAID Administrator Rajiv Shah commissioned a new Agency-wide Education Strategy to ensure that USAID’s global education investments would be informed by recent Presidential policy guidance; grounded in the most current evidencebased analysis of educational effectiveness; and aimed at maximizing the impact and sustainability of devel opment results. This 2011-2015 Education Strategy was created to reflect these core principles..
Last updated: April 23, 2015